Fundamentals Success-Test Book.pdf - Fundamentals Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking SECOND EDITION

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking SECOND EDITION FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd i 3/18/08 7:09:15 PM This page has been left intentionally blank. FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd ii 3/18/08 7:09:16 PM Fundamentals Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking SECOND EDITION Patricia M. Nugent, RN, MA, MS, EdD Professor Emeritus Nassau Community College Garden City, New York Private Practice – President of Nugent Books, Inc. Barbara A. Vitale, RN, MA Professor Emeritus Adjunct Professor Nassau Community College Garden City, New York Private Practice – Professional Resources for Nursing F. A. DAVIS COMPANY • Philadelphia FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd iii 3/18/08 7:09:16 PM F. A. Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Copyright © 2008 by F. A. Davis Company Copyright © 2008 by F. A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Publisher, Nursing: Robert G. Martone Director of Content Development: Darlene D. Pedersen Project Editor: Padraic J. Maroney Design and Illustrations Manager: Carolyn O’Brien As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes. The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. ISBN 13: 978-0-8036-1921-0 ISBN 10: 0-8036-1921-9 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F. A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the fee of $.10 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-1921-9/08 0 + $.10. FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd iv 3/18/08 7:09:17 PM Dedicated to Joseph Vitale and Neil Nugent For their love and support, particularly during the production of this book FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd v 3/18/08 7:09:17 PM This page has been left intentionally blank. FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd vi 3/18/08 7:09:17 PM Acknowledgments Many people at F. A. Davis were essential to the production of this book. We especially want to thank Bob Martone, Publisher for Nursing, whose skills of listening, focusing, and prodding were instrumental to the publication of this edition. He shared our enthusiasm for this project throughout the publishing process without losing his sense of humor, and we value his knowledge and friendship. We gratefully acknowledge Padraic Maroney, Project Editor, for his editorial expertise and keeping the project on task. Thanks also go to the entire F.A. Davis staff, especially to Louise Bierig, Developmental Editior; Lisa Thompson, Production Project Editor; and Bob Butler, Production Manager; all who competently transformed our manuscript into a book. Special recognition goes to all the nursing students and faculty who participated in fieldtesting sessions and focus groups for their commitment to excellence and generosity in sharing their time, energy, and intellects. Finally, but most importantly, we would like to thank our husbands, Neil and Joseph, for their love, senses of humor, enthusiasm for life, and their attempts to keep our compulsive natures under control. Their support was essential to the completion of this book and they are loved and appreciated by us. vii FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd vii 3/18/08 7:09:18 PM This page has been left intentionally blank. FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd viii 3/18/08 7:09:18 PM Reviewers Gloria Coschigano, APRN-BC, MS Assistant Professor Westchester Community College Valhalla, New York Amy Elinskas, MS, RN Nursing Instructor St. Elizabeth College of Nursing Utica, New York Mindy Heutinick, MSN, RN, ANP-C Instructor William Jewell College Liberty, Missouri Barbara Maxwell, RN, MSN, MS Associate Professor State University of New York at Ulster Stone Ridge, New York ix FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd ix 3/18/08 7:09:18 PM This page has been left intentionally blank. FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd x 3/18/08 7:09:18 PM A Message to Nursing Instructors Following the popularity of the first edition of Fundamentals Success: A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking, we again conducted focus groups with nursing students and nursing faculty to determine if the book continued to meet their needs or if additional needs emerged. • Nursing faculty still are concerned about assisting students with developing intellectual reasoning skills and supporting students’ personal qualities that promote effective inquiry. Faculty continued to ask, “HOW CAN WE HELP OUR STUDENTS TO THINK CRITICALLY?” • Although beginning nursing students alluded to the concerns identified by faculty, their greatest concern was the need for more fundamentals-of-nursing questions with which to practice test taking. Students still stated, “WE WANT MORE FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING QUESTIONS!” • Even though Alternate Item Formats have appeared on NCLEX examinations since the spring of 2003, both students and faculty continued to say, “WE WANT ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ALTERNATE ITEM FORMATS!” • In recent focus groups, students shared their concerns about preparing for and taking an examination at the end of a fundamentals of nursing course that addresses multiple fundamental concepts, principles, and theory. Students stated, “WE WANT TO PRACTICE TAKING A FUNDAMENTALS FINAL EXAMINATION!” • With the advent of NCLEX examinations being administered on a computer, most students indicated that they now take their nursing examination on a computer. Students said, “WE WANT TO PRACTICE TEST TAKING USING A COMPUTER!” This book addresses these felt needs. “HOW CAN WE HELP STUDENTS TO THINK CRITICALLY?” The entire premise of this book is based on the beliefs that: • • • • People use critical thinking all the time in their daily lives Nurses continue to use critical thinking in their professional lives People can enhance their critical-thinking skills Students can use critical-thinking skills when taking a nursing examination Chapter 1, Fundamentals of Critical Thinking Related to Test Taking: The RACE Model, discusses the topic of critical thinking in relation to everyday living and introduces the Helix of Critical Thinking. The Helix of Critical Thinking schematically represents the cognitive and personal competencies involved in critical thinking. This model is then discussed relative to the cognitive processes used in nursing (the nursing process, problem solving, decision-making, diagnostic reasoning, and the scientific method). Maximizing your critical thinking abilities is presented in the context of personal competencies that foster critical thinking. Information related to being positive, reflective, inquisitive, and creative are explored, and strategies to overcome barriers to the development of these competencies are interwoven throughout the discussion. The application of critical thinking xi FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd xi 3/18/08 7:09:18 PM xii A MESSAGE TO N URSING I NSTRUCTORS applied to test taking begins with a brief overview of educational domains, components of a multiple-choice test question, and the cognitive levels of nursing questions. Finally, the main component of this textbook is presented – The RACE Model. The RACE Model is a formula for using critical thinking when answering multiple-choice questions on a nursing examination. The theoretical framework of the RACE Model is explained and then applied to three sets of sample test items that span the cognitive domains of knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis. This illustrates the increasing complexity of critical thinking required as the difficulty of questions increase in relation to the same nursing content. “WE WANT MORE FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING QUESTIONS!” This book contains 1227 questions, which reflect a depth and breadth that comprehensively address the content commonly included in a fundamentals of nursing curriculum. They have been clustered by chapter into the related domains of: Chapter 2—Nursing Within the Context of Contemporary Health Care; Chapter 3—Psychosociocultural Nursing Care; Chapter 4—Essential Components of Nursing Care; and Chapter 5—Basic Human Needs and Related Nursing Care. “WE WANT ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ALTERNATE ITEM FORMATS!” Chapter 6, Alternate Item Formats, presents information regarding the NCLEX item formats introduced in April 2003 by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. Formats include: multiple-response items, fill-in-the-blank items, hot-spot items, chart/exhibit items, ordered-response (drag and drop) items, and standard multiple-choice questions that require the student to refer to a graphic image, picture, or chart/table to answer the question. In this edition, 78 additional Alternate Item Formats were added for a total of 103 items. In addition, numerous examples of the newly developed Chart/Exhibit Items by NCLEX have been included. “WE WANT TO PRACTICE TAKING A FUNDAMENTALS FINAL EXAMINATION!” To address this need, a 100-item Comprehensive Final Book Exam is presented in the text (Chapter 7). This provides students with an opportunity to integrate fundamental content learned in subunits of study into one examination. “WE WANT TO PRACTICE TEST TAKING USING A COMPUTER!” In this edition a CD-ROM, containing two, 75-item Comprehensive Course Exit Exams, has been included. This meets the need voiced by students to practice test taking on a computer as well as taking a comprehensive examination that integrates subunits of fundamentals of nursing content. Questions for inclusion were selected considering content validity and the results of an elaborate field-testing process that included statistical item analyses and focus groups with student nurses and nursing faculty to ensure quality questions. Every question in the book has rationales for the correct and incorrect answers. These questions can be used to apply the RACE Model to answer the questions, practice test taking, and study or review nursing content. Each section of questions in Chapters 2 through 5 is preceded by a list of keywords commonly associated with the content included in that area. Knowing the definition of these words and understanding information, concepts, and principles associated with these words will build a theoretical base for answering the questions in the content area. In addition, a Glossary of more than 250 English words commonly encountered on nursing examinations is included in the back of the book for consideration by the reader. Familiarity with these words will refocus the challenge of a nursing examination away from the form of the test and back to the nursing content of the test. SUMMARY When we wrote the first edition, our goals were to produce more quality fundamentals of nursing questions and to design a model to assist nursing students to use critical-thinking strategies when taking a nursing test. Based on the feedback we received from students and FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd xii 3/18/08 7:09:19 PM A MESSAGE TO N URSING I NSTRUCTORS xiii faculty, we achieved these goals. In this edition, we addressed the emerging needs of students and faculty by including: • 103 Alternate Item Formats (particularly Chart/Exhibit Format Items) • A 100-item Comprehensive Final Book Exam • A CD-ROM with two 75 Comprehensive Course Exit Exams Patricia M. Nugent Barbara A. Vitale FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd xiii 3/18/08 7:09:19 PM This page has been left intentionally blank. FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd xiv 3/18/08 7:09:19 PM A Message to Nursing Students Following the resounding success of the first edition of Fundamentals Success: A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking, we continue to hear the same comment from students, “MORE QUESTIONS, WE WANT MORE QUESTIONS!” We continue to hear from nursing faculty, “HOW CAN WE HELP OUR STUDENTS TO THINK CRITICALLY?” Even though Alternate Item Formats have appeared on NCLEX examinations since the spring of 2003, both students and faculty continue to say, “WE WANT ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF ALTERNATE ITEM FORMATS.” In addition, emerging requests from students include, “WE WANT TO PRACTICE TAKING A FUNDAMENTALS FINAL EXAMINATION!” and “WE WANT TO PRACTICE TEST TAKING USING A COMPUTER!” This book addresses these felt needs. If you are similar to the average nursing student, you read assigned chapters in your textbook and articles in nursing journals, review your classroom notes, complete computer instruction programs related to nursing content, practice nursing skills in a simulated laboratory, and apply in the clinical area what you have learned. All of these activities are excellent ways for you to expand and strengthen your theoretical base and become a safe practitioner of nursing. However, they may not be enough for you to be successful when taking a nursing examination. You need to practice test taking as early as possible in your program of study and with questions appropriate for your level of nursing education. In addition, you must be aware of, strengthen, and expand your cognitive competencies (intellectual reasoning skills) and personal competencies (individual attitudes or qualities) reflected in The Helix of Critical Thinking, and then utilize these components of critical thinking when answering nursing questions. In this book, we discuss personal competencies and present the RACE Model to provide you with a blueprint for applying critical thinking to answering multiple-choice questions in nursing. The components of the RACE Model are: R A C E — — — — Recognize what information is in the stem. Ask, What is the question asking? Critically analyze the options in relation to the question asked in the stem. Eliminate as many options as possible. The theoretical framework of the RACE Model is explained and then applied to three sets of sample test questions that span the cognitive domains of knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis. This illustrates for you the increasing complexity of critical thinking required as the difficulty of questions increases in relation to the same nursing content. In addition, the book contains 1227 multiple-choice questions organized into 24 content areas commonly included in a fundamentals of nursing curriculum. When answering these questions you can use critical thinking by applying the RACE model and practice test taking. When examining the rationales for the correct and incorrect answers you can review fundamentals of nursing content and identify what you still need to study. For your personal development, each of the fundamentals of nursing content areas is preceded by a list of keywords, nursing/medical terminology, concepts, principles, or information associated with the topics presented. In addition, a Glossary of 250 English words commonly found in nursing multiple-choice questions is included at the end of the textbook. Familiarity with these words will refocus the challenge of a nursing examination away from defining the words in a test question and back to the theoretical content being evaluated in the test question. xv FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd xv 3/18/08 7:09:19 PM xvi A MESSAGE TO N URSING STUDENTS WHY YOU SHOULD READ THIS TEXTBOOK: FEATURES AND BENEFITS FABK003-FM[i-xxii].indd xvi FEATURE BENEFITS 103 questions with formats other than multiple-choice. These questions will: Expose you to the alternate types of question formats that appear on NCLEX examinations. Allow you to practice nursing questions that incorporate multiple-response items, fi ll-in-the-blank items, hot-spot items, chart/exhibit items, ordered-response (drag and drop) items, and questions that use graphic illustrations, tables/charts, or pictures. Reduce anxiety concerning alternate item formats you will be confronted with on NCLEX. Key word lists at the beginning of each content chapter that include vocabulary, concepts, nursing/medical terminology, principles, and information. These words encourage you to focus on the critical components of a topic of study. Understanding these critical components expands your theoretical base and provides a strong foundation for more advanced concepts. Glossary that identifi es and defi nes ordinary English words that appear frequently in nursing examinations. Familiarity with these words reduces the challenge of a test question because you can center your attention on the theoretical content presented in the question. A discussion of maximizing your critical-thinking abilities including the attitudes and qualities of successful critical thinkers and strategies to overcome barriers to critical thinking. This discussion provides a basis for a self-assessment in relation to these qualities and introduces strategies that you can use to overcome barriers to your critical thinking. This discussion should motivate you to maintain a positive mental attitude and be refl ective, inquisitive, and creative when thinking. The RACE Model is introduced and applied to a variety of sample questions. These concrete examples model the critical-thinking processes involved when answering increasingly complex multiple-choice questions in nursing. This facilitates the imitation of the critical-thinking activities used in the examples when you are confronted with answering a multiple-choice question in nursing. Ultimately, when you can critically analyze a question and answer it correctly, you will feel empowered and your test anxiety will decrease. 1227 quality fundamentals of nursing questions. These questions allow you to practice test taking and apply the use of critical thinking via the use of the RACE model. This should increase your critical-thinking skills, promote your self-confi dence, build your stamina when taking tests, and reduce test anxiety. Rationales for the correct and incorrect answers for every question. Reviewing the rationales for every question will: Reinforce what you know—This increases trust in your ability and promotes a sense of security. Teach you new information—This increases your knowledge and builds self-confi dence. Identify what you still need to learn—This focuses and prioritizes your study activities so that the return on your effort is maximized. 100-item Comprehensive Course Exit Exam This provides you with an opportunity to integrate fundamental content learned in subunits of study into one examination. Two 75-item Comprehensive Course Exit Exams on a CDROM. This provides you with an opportunity to practice test taking on a computer as well as taking a comprehensive examination that integrates subunits of fundamentals of nursing content. 3/18/08 7:09:19 PM A MESSAGE TO N URSING STUDENTS xvii To increase your knowledge of fundamentals of nursing theory and experience success on nursing...
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