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Day 5 - Pyramids - 1 2 PYRAMIDS Egyptian religion cyclical...

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1 1 PYRAMIDS 2 Egyptian religion - cyclical travels of sun-god Re; 3 Osiris murdered & cut to pieces by jealous brother Seth; put together by wife Isis - Osiris reincarnated as god of underworld - cycles. 4 belief in afterlife; citizens benefit by ensuring pharaoh eternal life - their fate tied to his through ma'at, protect his people in afterlife. 5 belief in soul ('ba") everyone has spiritual duplicate or life force ("ka") after death, ka still lives near tomb, while ba travels between earth & afterworld. ba as bird with dead person’s face 6 Body needed to be preserved as lifelike as possible so ba & ka could re-enter mummification magic/religious act. embalmer's chamber -"house of purification" or "tent of the god" - craftsmen high skill & status. 7 Earliest form simple - wrapped in animal skin or linen; hot dry sand drew water out of body. 8 Develop skill in removing organs & preserving features of dead - technique evolves. 72 day process
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2 9 Remove organs through incision in abdomen; then seal with “wedjat” eye plaque so demons couldn’t enter body, often gold so protected forever 10 wash body with natron ("divine salt"), saturate organs & hundreds of yards of linens wrapping body. 11 removal of vital organs (liver, lungs, stomach, intestines) - mummified, each organ protected by different god, kept in fancy "canopic" jars. Heart left in body, brain discarded. 12 "opening the mouth" ceremony - symbolic ritual to let deceased eat offerings, speak & breathe in afterlife, & restore sense of touch, hearing, smell & sight 13 ointments, wrapped in linen, gold & jeweled amulets - “life, power and stability for millions of years” 14 special magic "heart scarab - precious stones. 15 Afterlife - “weighing of the heart” ceremony - deceased’s heart weighed against feather of justice before Osiris; if good, becomes immortal; if not enough good to counterbalance, heart eaten by crocodile 16 scarab to prevent heart from speaking against owner. O my heart which I received from my mother do not stand up against me as a witness! Do not create opposition against me among the assessors! Do not tip the scales against me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance! 17 “pyramid texts” - inscriptions written on walls as spell to ensure pharaoh’s ascent into sky as god. Spell for not dying again. 18 Journey to afterlife dangerous - spell give spirit food for journey, secrets to repel attacks by fire-breathing dragons & other supernatural enemies, answers to questions asked by keepers of seven gates to
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3 prove legitimacy. Then arrive at hall of Osiris for judgment. 19 [The dead will say:] Homage to you, Great God, the Lord of the double Ma'at (Truth)! I have committed no evil upon men. I have not oppressed the members of my family.
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