Day 6 - Greece

Day 6 - Greece - 1 2 GREECE 2000 BC, small farming...

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1 1 GREECE 2 2000 BC, small farming villages; development 800 BC. rival city-states - "polis" 3 (Mediterranean coast) philosophical ideal - search for order & meaning in nature & life - natural harmony & beauty. Search for form, proportion, relationship of parts to whole. 4 Athens dominant 5th C BC - Golden Age of Greece, democracy, commercial power, empire. Arts, architecture, theater, literature, philosophy. Athens internal quarrels; 431 BC Peloponnesian war; Athens surrender 404 BC. 5 Greece not unified until 350 BC, when Philip II, king of Macedon - conquer city-states (except Sparta), 6 331 BC Alexander III “the Great” conquer massive Persian Empire, no military defeats - Syria, Egypt, Palestine, part of India. 7 8 colonies supply food, minerals. spread Greek civilization, network of trade, prosperity. steady supply of slaves, some skilled pottery makers, goldsmiths, iron impurities - wrought iron. 9 331 BC Alexander founded rich harbor city Alexandria in Egypt - mouth Nile delta - trade. Egypt’s capital 1000 years - still port today
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2 10 Alexandria library largest ancient world 11 estimate over 500,000 books (papyrus scrolls). 12 2002 new “Bibliotheca Alexandrina” 13 Museion (Mouseion) (literally "temple of the Muses") for learning. Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy Reconstruction 14 Archaeologists found 20 lecture halls, semicircular tiers of benches, hold 5000 students - but probably later Roman era, 500 AD? 15 Alexander died 323 BC - split into warring factions, outer states drift away. 323 BC- 31 BC known as Hellenistic age - spread of Greek language, culture, architecture - mixed with local cultures. Ultimately surpassed, taken over by new political power - Rome. 16 roads,poor; sea main transport,. merchant class - negotiate contracts Imports - grain & fish Black Sea; slaves, carpets & silver Asia; Exports - wine, olive oil, pottery. 17 cargo ships - navigate by landmarks in day, stars by night. cargo - common up to 500 tons. 18 Several wrecks found - one found in 2001 carried 3000 amphorae 19
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3 Wreck merchant ship near Kyrenia (in Cyprus) found 1967 - cargo wine, oil, almonds 20 1985 full-scale replica “Kyrenia II” 21 Military vessels - long ships; Pentekonter - single banks of oars each side - larger ones 100 feet long, 50 rowers. 22
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Day 6 - Greece - 1 2 GREECE 2000 BC, small farming...

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