Day 9 - China - 1 2 CHINA China one of oldest continuous...

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1 1 CHINA 2 China - one of oldest continuous civilizations still in existence. Flourishing towns 1700 BC Europe disorder; China stable, advanced knowledge. Innovations promoted by well-educated officials large geographic area, great river valleys - spread of culture & innovations 3 "four great inventions" - paper, printing, gunpowder, magnetic compass 4 Evidence domesticated rice & millet cultivation at least 6000-7000 BC (some claims 9500 BC) - stone tools, storage pits - found preserved noodles millet flour 2000 BC) Primitive farming villages 4500 BC Yellow River - flooding - network of canals, system water management. 5 chain pumps for irrigation, powered by treadmill, ox, or water throughout countryside; also supply water palace gardens 6 300 BC states attacked by nomads build watch towers, connect by walls of earth tamped into wood frame 200 BC first emperor Qin Shihuang unites China, orders early walls extended, linked. Succeeding centuries, walls extended, repaired, renovated against Mongol threat 7 Most sizable towns had city defensive walls of earth, brick, stone - gates, towers, moats - up to 50 feet high, 65 feet wide at base (later merchants’ complaints walls impede trade) 8
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2 Modern Great Wall of China - Ming Dynasty, 1388 AD - up to 25 feet high - foundation rectangular stone, upper walls brick (stronger than tamped earth, lighter to move than stone - local kiln workshops) 9 World’s largest military structure - 1500 miles east-west across north China, sea to Central Asia. Connect existing fortifications to make united defensive system. 10 top 12 feet wide (soldiers, wagons). Battlement cover for archers. 2-3 story watch towers (wood & brick), signal towers (smoke signals, beacon fires, flags, drums, cannon) Guard stations, passes. Soldiers’ living quarters. 11 300,000 soldiers; slaves, prisoners - "every stone cost a human life." 12 defense against nomadic Mongolian tribes, the Huns also symbolic, setting Chinese civilization off from barbarian tribes. 13 Later generations repair, re-build, modify. Imperfect defense - never perfectly continuous; 1644 Manchurian warriors break through “The First Pass Under Heaven,” overthrow Ming Dynasty 14 1950s Mao encourage locals take bricks for homes, pigpens, factories 2007 desertification sandstorms crack wall, erode into mounds of dirt Tourist abuse; illegal highway building. Original walls, 50% gone, 30% in ruins. Beijing originally 391 miles, now 114 15 China “five metals” - gold, silver, copper, iron, tin Gold mining, panning 16 cast iron 4th C BC - pack iron ore into long crucibles, surround by burning charcoal. 100 BC, emperor nationalized iron-making, state monopoly, employ hundreds 17 mass production of cast iron objects from molds - plowshares, hoes,
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3 knives, axes, pots, toys, mirrors, coins, cannon barrels. Iron weapons and armor , standardized sizes.
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