Day 11 - Europe - 1 2 MEDIEVAL EUROPE Rome glorious empire...

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1 1 MEDIEVAL EUROPE 2 Rome glorious empire, 100 million people. Technology & building key significance in governing huge area. After 200 AD, Roman Empire transformed. invasion by Germanic semi-nomadic tribes. political chaos & economic decline. 235-285 AD, 26 different emperors, many incompetent & tyrannical - anarchy, civil war, & military dictatorship. 3 Epidemics, famines. Agricultural production & tax revenues down. Revert to barter economy. civil wars & uncertainty disrupt trade. Don’t maintain urban infrastructure. Manufacturing decline. Inflation, government deficit, negative balance of trade. Heavy cost of maintaining Roman army. 4 Center of power in Roman world shifting east - Constantinople. Italy in political & economic decline, but Eastern parts suffered less - hope to recapture glories of Rome. 395 AD Roman Empire officially divided East & West. 5 Romans call Germanic peoples "barbarians" (Greek for "foreign" or "strange") - different appearance, culture. Individualistic, no permanent state or even real cities (very definition of Rome was the state). Religion - state matter in Rome, personal matter for Germanic peoples. 6 Germans fought off Roman attempts to extend Empire beyond Danube. Over centuries, peaceful ties - Romans set up trade networks, invited Germans to settle further inside Empire. After 350 AD, Roman army almost entirely German, even generals. Romans try to prevent invasion - diplomatic pressure, long defensive walls. 7
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2 After 350 AD German tribes population growth, invaded by nomadic Huns under Attila. Huns’ strong cavalry defeated Ostrogoths (German tribe closest to East). Visigoths scared, resettle inside Roman empire, then abused by Roman despots. Visigoths protest, defeat Roman army battle of Adrianople 378 AD. Visigoth leader Alaric invaded Italy, sacked Rome 410. Visigoths took over Spain. Sea travel threatened by pirates. 8 455 Vandals sack Rome, capture African food supplies. Franks spread across Gaul. Angles, Saxons & Jutes challenge Roman rule in Britain. Huns plunder northern Italy. 9 476 end of Roman Empire in West - Odoacer, German commander of mercenary soldiers in Roman Army, took over government, end line Roman emperors. 10 Germanic tribes different than Rome - more individualistic. Self- sufficient farmers - trade not important, no real monetary system. no real use for cities. Don’t maintain Roman public buildings, aqueducts, roads - so land travel difficult. 11 cannibalize Roman buildings to make own houses, churches. Don’t share Greco-Roman ideals of harmony & ideal forms. Germanic construction different colors & forms mixed together - saw each element as unique, symmetry irrelevant. Make pots by hand, all different, rather than many identical pots using potter's wheel like Romans. Strong knowledge & technology metal working & iron-making.
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