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Day 12 - Cathedrals

Day 12 - Cathedrals - 1 2 CATHEDRALS AND CLOCKS importance...

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1 1 CATHEDRALS AND CLOCKS 2 importance religion in medieval life - way of understanding world order. church as political control; support of European culture (Charlemagne converts by force if necessary); & military force (Crusades). guidance & stability against chaos, famine & disease. 3 Popes’ quest for power, head administrative system, own law & courts. Hierarchy - Pope down to village priest. church wealth - one-third all land in Europe. Rich monasteries more worldly. Push for reform. 4 910 new order of monks in Cluny (France) to enhance pope’s authority, end secular kings’ interference. Emphasize prayer in monastery. Influential, wealthy - intrigue, criticism. 5 other new monastic orders - Cistercian movement 1098. Ascetics - separated from worldly temptation. 1153, 343 abbeys, doubling number by 1200. Renounced wealth; strict discipline of fasting & prayer. 6 Cistercians’ spiritual & intellectual discipline - also manual labor. Monk should know "all the skills & jobs of the peasants" - farming, carpentry, clothmaking - monastery self-sufficient. 7 Not enough labor - water power. abbey of Clairvaux, water wheels to drive flour mills, tannery, crushing mill, trip hammer, & bellows for iron forge. Monasteries located near river. 8 Irony - mills produce surplus iron, olive oil, wool & flour - monks become good businessmen - England virtual monopoly wool trade, leading ironmakers in France.
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2 Spread improvements in agriculture, knowledge of waterpower - Cistercians first waterpowered iron mills in Germany, England & Denmark. Netherlands, Cistercian monks maintain retaining seawalls. 9 Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, “Royal Monastery of Our Lady of the Wheel” Spain - Cistercians dam river, build massive waterwheel “rueda”, bring water into monastery through aqueduct as plumbing (washing, cooking), waste disposal, garden irrigation, & central heating system (wood-fired furnaces). 10 Monastic orders different ideas about what was important in Christianity. Cluniac churches golden goblets, silver candlesticks, silk robes, & painted walls - main monastery huge building. 11 Cistercians: "O vanity of vanities, but more folly than vanity! Every part of the church shines, but the poor man is hungry! The church walls are clothed in gold, while the children of the church remain naked. Tell me then, poor monks - if indeed you are poor - what is gold doing in the holy place? Greed is the root of all evil." 12 Cistercian churches austere stone, no towers, no sculpture, plain wooden altar & bare walls. 13 Abbot Suger of St. Denis (Paris): "Let every man follow his own opinion. It has always seemed right to me that everything which is most precious should above all add to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. Should we dispose of the golden vases and precious stones and all that creation holds most valuable? We believe that outward ornaments and sacred chalices should serve nowhere so much as in our worship." 14 Suger enlarge St. Denis 1137 - riches symbol God’s glory - gold- covered cross & altar, elaborate bronze door, commissioned from best craftsmen.
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