8 and 9 Empires 1200-350 BCE 2017.ppt

8 and 9 Empires 1200-350 BCE 2017.ppt - HIST 100 Empires...

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HIST 100: Empires 1200-350 BCE Centralized and Decentralized Rule Morning Messages : 1)Inquizitive (Ch. 4) due by 9:30AM on Thursday (9/28). 2)E xam 1 on 10-3-17 (one week from today). Worth 150 pts --- 40 MCQs @ 3.75 pts each --- i.e. 15% of your 1000 pts for the class. 3) Exam 1 study guide is posted to Bb (in tab marked Writing, Study Guides, and EC)... Check it out for terms, tips, and sample Qs. 4) Q&A for Exam 1 terms is available in Discussion area of Backboard. Watch for notion of power, subject peoples, cultural “interaction” & (mis)understanding, understanding of the role of history in memory
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Major themes for this week’s class: What are the features of empires across Eurasia from 1200-350 BCE? How did the Neo-Assyrian and Persian Empires consolidate their imperial control over vast territories? How did peoples on the margins of Assyria and Persia interact with these centralized powers? How did the Zhou Dynasty establish loose control in East Asia in the aftermath of the Shang Dynasty? How did South Asia become somewhat integrated without a centralized imperial state, in the aftermath of the “Indo-european migrations”?
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Early Empires (1200-350 BCE) “Systems Collapse” ca. 1200 CE??? Increased urban growth (though vast majority still live outside cities… Compare with AGD in WTWA , p. 135, cities in SW Asia ): 2000 BCE – 8 large cities – about 30,000 population in each ---240,000 pop in cities ( 1% of world pop = 27 mill) 1200 BCE – 16 large cities – 24-50,000 pop – 499,000 total pop in these large urban areas (2x) ( 1% of world pop = 50 mill in 1000) 400 BCE – 51 large cities –30-200,000 pop -- 2,877,000 total pop in these large urban areas (5-6x) ( 2 % of world pop = 162 million) New technology making unification easier: perfected horse- riding, cavalry, long-distance communication, roads (esp. Persia), canals (China) Further Integration of Religion/Philosophy and Rule Varied Forms of Unification: political organization & military (centralized) OR shared culture and trade (more decentralized) Spectrum of Empire HIGHLY centralized ( Neo-Assyrians ) VERY loose (hardly any) political centralization (but TIGHT cultural unity) in Vedic South Asia Multi-cultural Diverse Persian Empire Loose political organization in Zhou China
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CENTRALIZED: Neo-Assyrian Empire (934 – 609 BCE) “Land of Ashur” (Core – Assur/Nineveh) and “Land under the Yoke of Ashur” (Periphery) Controls vast territory by ideology, intimidation, brutal conquest, large-scale deportations/genocide Nimrud
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Neo-Assyrian Religion/ Ideology and Rule (from Nimrud 860 BCE) (L) Female Protective Spirits with Sacred Tree (R) King Ashurnasirpal (r. 883-859) with Tree of Life and Sun God Shamash (Mace = authority; Ring in hand = god-given Kingship) Relief located behind the throne
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Images from Khorsabad Court of Sargon II (ca. 705 BCE), from the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago (back inscription) Palace of Sargon [II, ruled 722-705 BCE], ruler appointed by Enlil, priest of Assur, mighty king, king of the world, King of Assyria, king of the four quarters of the world, favorite of the gods …who provides food for the destitute, who
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