WK2Assgn Obieze AP nurs 6501.docx - Running head ADAPTIVE RESPONSE Adaptive Response Walden University NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology ADAPTIVE

WK2Assgn Obieze AP nurs 6501.docx - Running head ADAPTIVE...

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Running head: ADAPTIVE RESPONSE. Adaptive Response Walden University NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology March 10, 2019
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ADAPTIVE RESPONSE. 2 Adaptive Response The human body and the environment are under constant interaction. We as human beings no matter how careful can not run away from the weather, pollutants, infectious agents and agents that can result in physical trauma. As a result of this constant interactions, the human body has had to develop various means of protecting itself from injury and infection. There are three levels of defense mechanisms the human body undergoes in order to rid itself of infection or physical trauma. The first line of defense against infection is referred to as innate immunity. Innate immunity is the body’s natural immunity which is in place at birth to prevent environmental damage and fight infection and involves no memory. Examples include the skin, and mucous membranes (Huether & McCance, 2017). The second line of defense is the inflammatory response, this is activated to protect the body from further injury, prevent infection of the injured tissue and promote healing in the event that the first line of defense is breached. Its response is immediate but does not involve any memory. In the event that the second line of defense is compromised, the third line of defense known as adaptive immunity is activated but in a much slower response. Adaptive immunity or acquired immunity is specific to the antigen, targeting and killing the particular microorganisms. This form of defense mechanisms unlike the other two involves memory which results in a faster response during future exposure to the same microorganisms (Huether & McCance, 2017). The body undergoes all three-defense mechanism at one point in a lifetime depending on the magnitude of the infection or physical trauma. With that being said, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate three different health scenarios, identify the
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ADAPTIVE RESPONSE. 3 pathophysiology, the alterations and adaptive responses of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios and construct a mind map of one of the disorders. Scenario 1 Jennifer a two-year old female was brought in to the hospital by her mother with a chief complaint of fever of 103.2oF and increased fussiness. Upon further physical examination, it was noted that the patient was erythematous with a +4 tonsils, diffuse exudates, increase pulse and respiratory rate. Jennifer might be suffering from tonsillitis disorder which is usually of rapid onset. According to Wolford and Schaefer, (2018), tonsillitis is a type of disorder which presents with difficult in swallowing, enlargement of the lymph nodes around the neck. Usually, the back of the throat known as the pharynx is inflamed. The inflammation may include many parts in the region including nasopharynx, soft palate, uvula and the tonsils. Due to the involvement of these parts, the condition may consist of nasopharyngitis, tonsillopharyngitis, and tonsillitis.
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