2320 Lecture 2 Transcription NOTES (2).pptx

2320 Lecture 2 Transcription NOTES (2).pptx -...

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Transcription
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geneed.nlm.nih.gov
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Outline RNA Transcription – overview Transcription - Prokaryotes Transcription – Eukaryotes Alternative splicing
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4 differences separate RNA from DNA: 1. RNA has ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA
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4 differences separate RNA from DNA: 2. RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded. 3. RNA nucleotides (ribonucleotides) contain the same bases adenine, guanine, and cytosine, but thymine is replaced with uracil. 4. RNA can catalyze biological reactions – like proteins, but unlike DNA. RNA
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4 differences separate RNA from DNA: RNA
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RNA biobook.nerinxhs.org
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There are two general classes of RNA – messenger RNA (mRNA) and functional RNA (various). mRNA is the intermediate between DNA and protein production – it carries coded information from DNA to make protein RNA Fig 8-11
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Functional RNA does not encode information, but instead has a specific function of its own. Examples include: Help convert DNA information into protein (tRNA, rRNA) Process other RNA (snRPs) Regulate RNA and protein levels, maintain genome stability (miRNA, siRNA) RNA
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Help convert DNA information into protein: (exist in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) Transfer RNA (tRNA) – brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome reading the mRNA. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) major molecular component of the ribosome. RNA Fig 9-12
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Process other RNA (only in eukaryotes) Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) – helps process RNA transcripts within the nucleus (U1-U6) Combines with proteins to form the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRPs) of the mRNA processing complex (spliceosome). RNA
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Regulate RNA and protein levels, and maintain genome stability (only in eukaryotes) MicroRNA (miRNA) – regulate protein expression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) – protect genome stability in plants and animals. Prevent production of viruses and spread of transposable elements. RNA
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Outline RNA Transcription – overview Transcription - Prokaryotes Transcription – Eukaryotes Alternative splicing
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Transcription – production of mRNA by copying the nucleotide sequence of DNA. DNA is transcribed (copied) to create an mRNA molecule, called the transcript. The DNA strands separate locally and act as a template for complimentary base-pairing – Either homolog may serve as template, but only one strand is used for each given gene!
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  • Spring '12
  • TBA
  • DNA, RNA, Spliceosome, Prerna, multisubunit complex

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