Bio121.docx - Genetics The cell cycle is the division if...

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Genetics: The cell cycle is the division if preexisting cells into new cells Embryos: newly developed organisms Meiosis: Production of sperm and eggs - Made by gametes - Male and female reproductive cells - Daughter cell results in only half od the chromosomes Mitosis: Production of other cell types - Somatic cells - Genetic material is copied - Divided equally - Daughter cell is identical copy Chromosomes: single, long DNA double helix wrapped in protein - Condensed into compact, movable structures - Copied, then distributed to daughter cells Gene: length of DNA that codes for particular protein or RNA Chromatid: DNA copy in a chromosome Centromere: Special region where chromosomes are joined
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Mitosis: Growing cells go between mitotic (M Phase) and the no dividing phase: interphase During interphase: DNA is inside nucleus with proteins called histones - Material is called chromatin - Active time - Growing and preparing to divide - Or doing special function S Phase (Synthesis): Part if interphase - Replication of genetic material is separated from chromosome copies of M phase Cell Cycle: sequence of functions that start with formation of eukaryotic cell through to division - There is a gap in the cell cycle - G2 phase: when chromosome replication is complete but mitosis hasn’t begun - G1 phase: 7-9-hour period after M phase before S phase Gaps exist so that parents can grow large enough and synthesis enough organelles for daughter cells Cohesins: hold sister chromatids together until signal - 3 proteins and 2 pieces of DNA - Rings cleaved at signal and sister chromatids become independent chromosomes Microtubules: transport pieces of DNA Condensins: Proteins that encircle DNA and condense chromosomes
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Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase Prophase : chromosomes condense into compact structures - Formation of spindle apparatus: structure that produces mechanical forces that o Pulled chromosomes to the poles of the cell during mitosis o Push the poles of the cell away from each other - Polar Microtubules: extend from each spindle and overlap in middle of cell - Kinetochore Microtubules: attach to chromosomes at centromere Prometaphase : - Nuclear envelope begins to disappear - Microtubules from the spindle apparatus attach to one of the two sister chromatids of each chromosomes - Attachment between kinetochore microtubules and each sister chromatids at kinetochore - Centromeres continue their movement to opposite poles of the cell Metaphase : Centrosomes complete their migration to the opposite poles of the cell - Kinetochore microtubules finish moving chromosomes to middle of cell - Metaphase plate: chromosomes are lined up along plane o Spindle apparatus formation is complete o Kinetochore microtubules reach to opposite poles Anaphase : Cohesions are holding sister chromatids together split - Create independent chromosomes as soon as they are no longer attached - Proteins pull chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell - Replicated chromosomes separate into two identical sets of un-replicated chromosomes -
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  • Winter '13
  • meiosis II

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