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Chapter 16 American Foreign Policy Since 1972 Foreign Policy under President Nixon Détente, China, and Chile 1. Nixon sought détente (easing of tensions) with the Soviet Union. 1972, first U.S. President to visit Moscow. Signed an agreement known as SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) 2. 1972, President Nixon and his Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger visited Communist China and met with dictator Mao Zedong. 3. Nixon hoped that by meeting with the Soviets and Chinese, it would put pressure on North Vietnam to end the war. 4. U.S. and China relations now led to trade and entry of China into the United Nations. 5. Many historians believe this reopening of relations with China was Nixon’s greatest accomplishment as President. 6. Nixon and Kissinger instructed the CIA to cooperate with the Chilean military and other groups against Chilean socialist leader Salvador Allende. 7. General Pinochet seized power in a military coup and established a brutal dictatorship. The Watergate Crisis 1. During the Presidential election campaign of 1972, ex-CIA agents broke into Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate office complex in downtown Washington, D.C. 2. Nixon tried to protect these agents from investigation by claiming they were acting for national security. 3. Congressional hearings revealed that Nixon had all his conversations taped in the White House. 4. Nixon refused to hand over the tapes to investigators, claiming “ Executive Privilege” 5. Supreme Court ruled that Nixon must hand over the tapes. 6. Tapes revealed cover-up in break in. He resigned rather than face impeachment. The Ford and Carter Presidencies 1. Gerald Ford was Nixon’s Vice President; he became President when Nixon resigns. 2. Pres. Ford immediately once in office granted Nixon a Presidential pardon. 3. OPEC “ Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries” was formed in 1960. 4. In 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the Arab members of OPEC boycotted the U.S. and other countries that traded with Israel.
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5. Oil Prices continued to go up, contributing to high unemployment and inflation in the U.S. 6. Americans faced fuel shortages and had to wait long hours in line to get gas. 7. Smaller cars from Japan and Europe manufacturers suddenly became popular with Americans as gas prices soared. 8. Under Pres. Ford, North Vietnamese Communist overran South Vietnam in 1975. 9. Helsinki Accords: this agreement recognized the existing borders of Europe in an attempt to preserve peaceful relations between Western and Eastern Europe. The Panama Canal Treaty and the Camp David Accords 1. Jimmy Carter, Gov. of Georgia was elected President in 1976 as a Washington “ outsider”. 2. In foreign policy, Carter believed it was necessary for Americans to take a more moral tone. 3. During the Cold War, past Presidents had been willing to back dictators to stop the spread of Communism.
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