Exam 2 - Protein Study Questions Nitrogen cycle What is the...

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Protein Study Questions Nitrogen cycle What is the nitrogen cycle? How does it link ecology and nutrition? Name a few of the paths nitrogen takes. Structure What is protein made of? How many amino acids are found in nature? A long strand of Amino Acids held together by a peptide bond, 20 Amino acids (AAs) What chemical elements are found in all amino acids? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Which one is unique to amino acids amongst the macronutrients? Nitrogen What are the chemical groups on an amino acid? Amine (-NH2) and Carboxyl (-COOH) What do we call the bond that joins amino acids? Peptide Bond Peptides What are peptides? What are they made from? Amino acids joined together Name a peptide. Insulin Proteins How many amino acids can be found in a protein? Hundreds or Thousands How does the cell know the proper sequence of amino acids when making a protein? What do genes have to do with proteins? Why do we say "one gene, one protein?"
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The sequence of a certain protein is held in a gene How many proteins does the human body have? Tens of thousands Complex structures What determines the structure of a protein? What forms may a protein molecule take? What effect does structure have on function? Coiled, A protein is fully functional when it is tightly coiled Digestion and absorption What is denaturation? Change in the physical and chemical properties What is produced in the stomach that helps digest protein? Hydrochloric acid What are proteases? Where are they found? Digestive enzyme that breaks down the peptide bonds of amino acids, found in the stomach and Small intestines What is the final product of protein digestion? Amino acids are absorbed by the mucosal cells in the small intestines Functions Body constituents Name some body constituents made of protein. Lipoprotein – carries lipids in the blood stream Structural components Name some structural components made of protein. Muscle and connective tissue Maintain fluid balance What is osmosis? What is osmotic pressure? How does protein attract and retain fluid in the bloodstream?
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Movement of water from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration across a cell membrane, Osmotic pressure is the force generated by the attraction of the solute on the solvent and casues osmosis, How does osmotic potential counteract blood pressure? What happens if there is insufficient protein in the bloodstream? Kwashiorkor is when fluid goes out of the blood stream and into the abdominal cavity Acid base balance What is a buffer? Do proteins do this? Protein acts as a buffer to absorb excess hydrogen atoms Regulation What is the role of most body proteins? Become enzymes What is an enzyme? How do they work? Why do we need them? A protein that catalyze biochemical reactions
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Exam 2 - Protein Study Questions Nitrogen cycle What is the...

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