Exam Review.docx - War of 1812 War of 1812 was mostly...

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Unformatted text preview: War of 1812: - War of 1812 was mostly fought to destroy livelihoods, not lives - Goal for both sides was to halt exports and restrict imports - American navy was not developed enough to face the English, so privateers took up the job defending and raiding british commerce - From July 1812 to February 1815, hundreds of private armed vessels from the United States, the British provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, England, and the Caribbean served as counterweights to the national navies on both sides - Many were regular ship traders who could no longer do it because of war, so they applied for letters of marque - Goal of the Americans was to avoid attacking the british navy at all costs unless you were sure you could win the fight, focus on commerce - Privateering had a huge risk and reward potentials, and because trade prospects were limited, sailors, investors, and traders often turned to privateering - Benefits of Privateering in North America - Wartime trade was in decline, building and outfitting ships created jobs - Privateering provided coastal communities with goods they otherwise would not have had, at least legally - Much more money - Congress incentivized privateering (25 dollars a head for british prisoners of war) Newfoundland Nova Scotia New Brunswick - Loosely governed up until the 1720’s - Lots of ways in and out - Many places to hide - Fishing vessels were easy prey for plunder and possible recruits International Cod Fishery: Grand Banks of Newfoundland - Lasted almost 500 years, many of the workers here would be recruited for piracy or privateering - Served as a great military ration - Dry fishery (england did not have salt, took longer for them to get back and sell it receiving a worse price than the wet fisheries Spain and France who used salt) Peter Easton: Peter Easton was an English privateer turned pirate often called the “Admiral Pirate” or “Great Easton”. He fought for the english during the Spanish English war, upon peace in 1604 out of work like so many others he turned to piracy. Initially sailing in the english channel attacking ships. Easton eventually made his way around Africa on his ship “Happy Adventure” and came to Newfoundland where he and his fleet of 5 repaired and re stocked themselves at Harbor Grace in Newfoundland. It was within the shores of Newfoundland that he found Kelly’s island and turned it into his base. It served as a lookout perfectly because of its height above sea level. In the Atlantic Easton and his men captured many fishing vessels and used them for provisions and in order to recruit men. Easton would extort colonies and coastal settlers, mainly Cuper’s struggling colony. Easton demanded livestock and provisions in order for protection and the promise he would not raid them. Easton did hold to his word with the people of Cuper’s and never raided them. In the years of 1612-1618, Easton and his crew now growing in size to 10 ships, 100 cannons and anywhere from 500-1000 men at its peak, captured 30 English ships, 25 French, 12 Portuguese, and 1 Flemish ship. Easton and his crew had their Kelly’s island base taken from them by Basque sailors (a region between spain and france), but in a bloody fight that cost Easton some of his men’s lives, they were able to regain the strategic island base. In the year 1613 formal complaints were being made to the crown about Easton’s actions. It was said he had caused at least 20,000 pounds in damage, probably from intercepting fishing trade. Richard Whitbourne is sent from England to find Easton. Peter takes Whitbourne “prisoner” and during this time the two men become close. Whitbourne gains a sense of respect for Easton and says he will petition to have him pardoned. Easton seized this opportunity, and is pardoned along with some crew members. During this time pardons could be bought, which is the case with Easton for around 2000 pounds, an enormous sum for the day considering the average yearly wage was around 15 pounds. However, before he retires, Easton and his crew take 4 Spanish treasure ships amassing an impressive plunder of Gold. He then heads to Savoy France where he builds a palace and a safehouse storage house for his 2 million pounds worth of gold, where he lives out his days as an elite, nicknamed here the “Marquis of Savoy”. Easton is arguably the most successful pirate to operate in the Atlantic Canada region. Black Bart: Captain Bartholomew Roberts was a Welsh pirate and ship carpenter. In 1719 Roberts served on a slave ship that was captured by pirates led by another Welsh born man, captain Howell Davis. Bart was taken for his valuable skill as a carpenter, but found that the pirate lifestyle suited him almost immediately. Black Bart quickly rose through the ranks for being an excellent sailor, and having navigation skills. During an altercation with the Portuguese, captain Howell Davis is killed, and the ship needs a new captain. Roberts is elected by the crew, and his first task for them is to return to the Portuguese and kill them all. From here Bart and his crew sailed to Brazil and the West Indies where they terrorized everyone they could find. Governors of Barbados and Martinique quicky heard of this dangerous pirate and wanted him to be stopped. Black Bart retreated to the Nova Scotia New Brunswick area for safety. His flag now flew an image of him standing on the skulls of the governor from Martinique and from Barbados. In this area Bart conducted numerous raids on ship, one of them capturing the French governor of Martinique and promptly hanged him on his own ship. This got him the #1 spot for pirate who had to be stopped on the radar of both the French and the English who knew it just as easily could have been the Governor of Barbados who was hanged. From Atlantic Canada Bart and his crew sailed to Africa, where they raided slave ports. Slave raids accounted for a great deal of Bart’s overall plunder as well as gold. On February 10 of 1722 an English warship named the HMS Swallow killed Bart in battle, and 54 other members of his crew were hanged in Ghana, largely marking the end of the golden age. Bart’s body was quickly thrown overboard at his request, so he would never be taken dead or alive. Black Bart in many ways was the embodiment of a Pirate as we think of them today. He loved showmanship and dressed very flamboyantly, with gold chains and a red feather in his hat, however he was very religious and hardly drank which was a rarity among pirates of the time. While BB may not be as well known as Captain Kidd or Blackbeard, he and his crew took more vessels over the course of their piracy than the two other men combined, a total of 400 ships. Black Bart also had a “pirate code” of sorts, one such rule in his code stated that all men aboard had an equal vote in affairs of the moment and had equal ownership of liquor and provisions aboard their ship. Captain William Kidd: Captain William Kidd was a Scottish privateer who owned land in New York City. Kidd had many connections with the elites in the city, and was a primary investor and founder of the Trinity church, which still stands in wall street today, built in the late 1600’s. Kidd was hired by investors in London and NYC who wanted to profit from his journey to the Indian Ocean. He was outfitted with a custom ship called the “adventure galley” for his journey. Kidd set off with his crew and made his way around the cape of good hope, becoming a roundsman. The ship then stopped in Madagascar to re outfit, and recruit more men. Once they reached the Indian ocean kidd and his crew attacked everything they could to make a profit. In 1698 they overtook the Quedah Merchant ship, filled with Armenian merchants. Unfortunately for Kidd and his crew England was trying to make good terms with the Armenians, so this proved to be a disaster. He was labeled a pirate by English governors. So he sailed back to Boston Harbor to protest his innocence or at least try to buy a pardon. Before he did this he buried his treasure from the Quedah as a bargaining chip if he was arrested. Once he arrived in Boston he was not able to buy a pardon, he was arrested and promptly sent to England for trial. Once there he claimed that the Quedah was travelling under French passes, meaning it was an enemy ship and could legally be attacked. The papers were taken from him upon arrest in Boston however, and the trial was not postponed. Kidd was executed at Tilbury Dock in England on May 23, 1701, where he was also Gibbeted. Kidd’s execution marks a notable and dangerous change in sentiment by the crown for pirates and privateers, who now seem to be causing too much of a nuisance for their actions to be tolerated any longer. The burying of the treasure plundered from the Quedah sparked the myth that all pirates must have buried treasure, it may certainly be true that some did other than Kidd, but it is not as well known or documented if this is in fact the case. In the case of the Quedah, the treasure was found by the English shortly after it’s burial. Brothers Barbarossa The brothers barbarossa were the most famous and arguably successful corsairs operating in the barbary coast. The name “Barbarossa” was given because of the brothers red beards, an unusual sight among the Barbary coast. They established a corsair base on an island off the coast of Tunisia, and obtained privateering licenses. The brothers came across two ships belonging to the pope, who of course is a sworn enemy to the Muslim corsairs. They take the prizes from these ships and gain an enormous amount of fame, and are greeted as heroes. Hundreds of people flock to them wanting to join, one of them is their other brother Ishak. Ishak helps Aruj and Hizir in their raid of Sicily. In a conflict with Spain, Aruj loses his arm. The brothers are forced to return to the port of Algiers and defend against Spain’s invasion, which proved successful. After this, Aruj leads a coup against the rulers in Algiers and is able to establish himself as the ruler. In doing this, he becomes a de facto ruler of the whole Barbary Coast. In 1518, the Spanish break through with 10,000 men, and kill Aruj and Ishak. Hizir, the only remaining brother escapes, and wants to avenge his brothers deaths. Hizir was able to rally a fighting force and resecure Algiers from the Spanish, after this he conducted raids on the french coast. Rovers of the Barbary Coast: Coast of North Africa, ports in Morocco, Tunis, Algiers. Pirates in these ports were seen as privateers to the local rulers, they could legally sell their plunder, but had to pay a portion of their profits to the ruler. Growing European maritime commerce fuels the piracy along the Barbary Coast. As the corsairs in these areas become more wealthy, they are soon elected to positions of power, and the economy of these coastal states is largely funded by their piracy. They were well organized and well equipped to carry out their missions. Chinese Piracy Flourished before the dynasty periods, which united China largely and curbed piracy. Piracy in China dates back to 4th century BCE. Before the Dynasty period, China was divided into small fragmented states, ruled by warlords. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) During the Ming dynasty, imperial power was extended to all these coastal regions, stopping some of the warlords power, piratical activities were ordered to be stopped. It was during this period that the Great Wall of China began. Chinese sailors reach the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and the voyages of Zheng He could have possibly reached the west coast of North America. Trade was booming during these periods, and local rulers were paid to control piracy on their coasts. The pirates that did exist were highly organized and held a great deal of power, there were no small havens, the pirates controlled large sections of coast line and ruled themselves as independent states. The imperial navy lacked the power to combat these pirate states. Commonly attacked were maritime trade routes between China and Japan. 16th century the first Europeans reach China, which coincides with the first pirate empire described below. Zheng Zhi Long (1604-1661) Long led the first large scale pirate empire in the Fukian Province, opposite of Taiwan. Long was originally a merchant who worked in Japan with Dutch traders. Longs raid in the Yangtze river secured his reputation as a master of the Chinese seas. A decade after this famous raid, Long sailed as far as Vietnam to conduct many more raids on the yellow river. Long earned more money from extortion payments than he did from actual raids. Meaning he forced coastal towns and people to pay him off in order to not be raided. Long was closely aligned with political elite in the Ming dynasty. But he quickly changes sides to the Manchu dynasty when he sees that the Ming dynasty is failing. He is rewarded by the Manchu for this, and his action of changing sides secures the fall of Ming. Long remains in control of Fukian province for some time until he is called to Beijing to answer for the actions of his son Koxinga. Long is blamed for his song supporting the Ming dynasty and is executed in 1661. This is because his son led an attack on the Manchu province at Nanking during 1659. Koxinga Son of Long, who led a powerful resistance against the incoming Manchu dynasty in favor of the Ming. After his father is executed he wants revenge on Manchu, he expands his father's empire, with his fleet based out of Fukian province, and the goal is to attack Manchu. Manchu rules the mainland, but Koxinga ruled the seas and used extortion like his Father. Attacked the Dutch in Formosa, something his father would not do. Koxinga is on the defensive after his attack at Nanking fails. 1661-62 attacks Dutch controlled Formosa, with the goal of capturing Fort Zeelandia. Koxinga attacks with 25,000 men and a fleet of 400 Junk ships. His pirate army had a special group of soldiers called the “iron man corps” influenced by the Japanese Samurai. February of 1662 Koxinga takes the fort from the Dutch. This showed that the Europeans could be defeated. Koxinga died of malaria later than year, his son took over Fukian and ruled it for 20 years before being killed by the Manchu. Koxinga is still very highly regarded, he has a shrine in Taiwan making him the only pirate to be a religious deity. Piracy becomes much smaller again after the Manchu take Fukian and Formosa. Cheng Yih (1765-1807) Founder of the next major pirate empire after the death of Koxinga. Yih was born into piracy, his father was a Chinese pirate. This is a period of instability with the Tay-Son rebels wanting control. As stability comes back, Yih is recognized as a threat so he moves to Guangdong which is the center of the Chinese opium trade. As he travels he takes control of other pirate fleets, amassing more and more power. In 1804 he defeats a squadron of portuguese ships in Macao. This forces the British to start protecting their merchant ships in these waters to avoid attacks from Cheng, however Cheng urges his pirates to not attack the Europeans, he does not want them to unite. In 1805 he forms a pirate confederation in the South China Sea. This forms his pirate empire, which is divided into 6 fleets marked by color, each fleet will have their own territory so they do not fight each other. Extortion is common again. Cheng sails with the red fleet, the largest of the 6, with 200 pirate junks. At the time of his death in 1807 he has 600 ships and around 30 000 men in his fleet alone, perhaps the largest amount of men in a pirate fleet anywhere. Possibly up to 150,000 men in total if they needed to in the entire pirate empire could be united. It is possible that his wife, Lady Cheng is behind his death. The Chinese empire turned a blind eye to the pirates because it would take too many resources, and China may have even needed them if Europe attacked. Lady Cheng (1775-1844) Lady Cheng was the wife of Pirate Cheng Yih, they were forcibly married in 1801. She was called the prostitute pirate. After Cheng’s death in 1807, Lady Cheng was voted in as his successor. She took control of the red fleet, and becomes romantic with Cheng Yih son. She is a natural pirate leader, and she raises the number of ships in the red fleet by 200, to 800 total. She was not intimidated by the Europeans, and even held them for ransom. Richard Glasspoole one of her European captors wrote of his experience, said Lady Cheng was very experienced and had a strict code of conduct that had to be followed, included things like rape being punishable by death. Even with her leadership skills, the empire begins to fall apart by 1810. Chinese Empire offers an approach called the carrot and stick. The stick is them declaring war on the pirates and asking Europe for help under the promise of opening up trade routes. The carrot is an offer of Amnesty to the pirates who surrender. The son of Cheng Yih takes the pardon and much of the red fleet with him, eventually becoming a pirate hunter. This brief period is similar to the proclamation of suppressing pirates used in New Providence. Lady Cheng eventually takes the pardon and is able to keep a small fleet, she goes on to run the biggest opium smuggling operation on the coast. Modern Piracy ⅓ of all pirate incidents occur in the strait of Malacca between Indonesia and Malaysia. 50,000 ships pass through this strait every year, including very large tanker ships that will often become bottlenecks forcing all to slow down, making them vulnerable to attack. ¼ to ⅓ of all oil production passes through this strait. Reasons for Modern Piracy Trend has been going towards smaller navies since WW2 meaning less ships on the water at once. The coastal countries where piracy is most prevalent are poor and do not have the budgets to stop piracy. Because of this merchant ships in these areas are left to their own devices much of the time. Some of these states, namely Somalia are failed states, and are mostly complicit in piracy occuring. Modern technology is easily accessible for pirates, and they are able to cheaply rent boats and weapons. International cooperation is sparse for controlling piracy. ...
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