Week 4.docx - Elizabethan Sea Dogs Spanish Portuguese and...

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Unformatted text preview: Elizabethan Sea Dogs Spanish + Portuguese and English, Dutch, and French sea roving: - 1500 Portuguese landed in Brazil, 1504 the French were there - 1528 first known attack on Spanish interests - 1540, the english enter the caribbean conquest - English, French, Dutch all established small colonies in the new world that served as sea roving spots against the portuguese and spanish Protecting Wealth in Transit: - Columbus first used small carrack and two caravels (ships), century later the galleon became the common man-of-war ship as well as for merchantmen, it sailed better and maneuvered better than the carrack, and had a better gun platform - Early 17th century it was replaced with the frigate, used both sail and oar, sailed even better than the galleon, it was based on the light mediterranean frigates - Intermediate form between the frigate and galleon was the galizabra, or treasure frigate, it was a lighter more maneuverable treasure ship (late 16th century) - Both the carrack and the galleon were effective in the early years, they were large so could carry lots of cargo and warriors (too slow though so they were replaced with the frigates) - 1501 the first gunports were carved into ships (bronze first in the 16th century, then iron) - Spanish often used land and sledge carriages for their guns until the 17th century - Some carracks would carry as much as 2,000 tons of materials on the trade routes - Spain had two pacific trade routes - Spain’s atlantic trade route was protected by a convoyed fleet from the early 16th century originally on account of the pirates that infested these waters - The convoys were small at first, then evolve into two treasure fleets, the Flota, and the Galeones - 1596 a combined english and dutch fleet captured the Spanish flota in Cadiz harbor - 1628 dutchman Piet Heyn captured the Spanish Flota at sea - Both captures caused financial disaster for Spain Arms and Armor: - Ships were armed with a combination of great guns, and pedreros or pierriers aka swivels - Late 16th century, great guns had the form that they would keep up until the early 19th century - Swivels were smaller, typically breech loaded, useful for repelling boarders, and also useful if an enemy had already boarded (stone shot was used, but iron shot was much more common) - Crosse barres and chain shot were common, fired into the rigging yards, and sails - Cases of small shot joined together with wire, used to damage rigging - Musket balls, iron scrap, and sharp stones were used against men (fired from both great guns and swivels) - Second half of the 16th century naval guns were loaded with cartridges (too dangerous to load with loose powder while in battle), cartridges were much more efficient as well - “Fireworks” were common, some were grenades of various sorts (cast iron, “fire-pots”, clay pots, - - glass bottles filled with gunpowder they were all designed to burn the enemy or smoke them out of hiding below deck) Fire Pike (trompa de fuego) was a pike fitted with a bottle of burning combustibles used both ashore and aboard ship Personal arms included a cutting sword (often short), a shield, bow and arrow, crossbow, musket, or mosquet (heavy matchlock musket), arquebus (light matchlock musket also called a hackbut) axe, and dagger “Proof armor” was armor that could stop a musket ball or pistol shot Mid 17th century armor was vastly gone at sea Spanish ships consisted of seaman, gunners, and soldiers - Seaman managed the ship - Gunners the guns - Soldiers their arms Galleon and Carrack versus Rover: - Small trading vessels would either run away from pirates or purposely ground themselves to avoid capture (pirates usually thought it too dangerous to ground themselves incase an enemy man-of-war came) - Treasure ships, even if separated from their fleet stood a much better chance against pirates - The galleons, galizabras and hulks or urcas of the new world trade were well armed and fairly high-sided Lecture Columbus: - Studied the vikings navigation Elizabethan Sea Dogs: - 14th - 17th centuries (1350 - 1650) - Renaissance = “rebirth” - “Age of Discovery”/ “Age of Exploration” - Western Europeans sail from mediterranean across atlantic - Trying to find the east, asia, to establish trade - Find the Americas - Middle ages coming to an end - Trade going well, ushered in commercial revolution - Financial instruments begin to be used (coming mainly out of Italy) - Da Vinci, Galileo - City states served as middle men for trade and banking Carrack/Nao - Hybrid of Mediterranean and Northern European designs - Two to four masts, main and lateen sails - Deep hold (large storage), “Castle at Sea” - Innovative ship of the 13th century - Able to stay out at sea much longer (large hold for food and people, less resupplying) - Iberian states develop vessels able to stay out at sea for weeks at a time Caravel: 3 masted ship (1450) - Portuguese design - Lateen sails (square sails more maneuverability) - Shallow draft for unknown waters - Small crew - Cargo space for a year worth of provisions Portuguese Voyages - Portuguese voyages go down south around bottom of Africa (called cape of good hope to not discourage further voyages down to the bottom of Africa, because in reality it was very stormy) - Eventually Portuguese sail past Africa and wrap around to the Indian Ocean to India (the route was a tightly guarded secret) - Spain realizes Portugal has found a way to the Indian Ocean - Columbus lands in Hispaniola - Portugal/Spain across the Atlantic to Cuba, Central America, South America - Never set foot on North America Treaty of Tordesillas (1493-94) - Essentially drew a line through the world - Everything to the west was Spain Everything east was Portugal Pope drew the line (two catholic countries, pope did not want to weaken catholicism) Portuguese get Brazil, and part of South America English, Dutch, etc other big powers do not agree with this line, they do not want to be excluded - Begin to explore the territories anyway (too big for Spain to be watching all the land the pope granted them) - They focus on the Northern part of Spain’s granted territory Threats to Spain + Portugal - “One country’s privateer was another country’s pirate” - Letters of Marque = license from home country to attack other vessels you are at war with (if you do not have these papers you are a pirate by international law), if you are caught you are not to be executed right away - Spanish refuse to observe these laws about privateering - Privateer = given a license by the state (state sanctioned) to attack the shipping of another state, if you are at war with them - Percentage of profit earned was usually given to the government - Governed by an internationally recognized set of rules Conquistadores - Some called them pirates (they operated on land though) - Drove muslims out of spain 15th century (the moors) - 1521 Cortez captured the capital city of the Aztecs (Tenochtitlan) - Francisco Pizaro attacks Peru 1530’s - Looking for a “City of Gold” (El Dorado) - Did end up finding many gold and silver mines Galleon: Workhorse of the Spanish Empire (ship away all of the gold and silver) - Improvement over the Carrack and Caravel - Large, multi-decked - First custom built warship - “Treasure Carrier” - Eventually becomes a warship as well as treasure ship - Battleship of the 16th century - Most advanced naval ship of the time - Could carry guns on multiple decks The Spanish Main - Initially refers to the Northern coast line of the south american coastline - Eventually becomes all of the Spanish empire (crossing the line) Jean Fleury of Honfleur - 1522, returning 3 spanish galleons (sent by cortez who just took Aztecs), they are attacked by 5 - - - french privateers under the command of Jean Fleury Captures them, chests are filled with Aztec statues, a lot of gold, Jewelry, bars of gold /silver, live jaguar Value of plunder = $5 million dollars US or 800,000 ducats (first money form) Fleury returns to France, welcomed as a hero Becomes apparent Spain cannot protect all their wealth, and it is now known that there is tons of wealth where the Spanish are colonizing/conquistadors Spanish/Portuguese ships become attacks much more often Jean Fleury is eventually captured and tortured and killed as a pirate Piracy against S + P continues by French Corsairs Jacques De Sores (French) lays siege to Havana 1555 - Killed the entire town, and burned it to the ground - De Sores viewed the Catholic Spanish as total enemies - They were protestant Spain responds by beginning to transport their treasures in a fleet (flota) - New Spain fleet - Tierra Firme fleet (both leave from seville) - They followed a predictable pattern of travel, soon they were realized Spain responds with new world fortresses - Major stone built defences French Huguenots - Jacksonville, Florida colony - Spanish find out about it - Pedro Menendez de Aviles - Establishes a base 30 miles south of the French - French try to attack the Spanish first with a fleet, but they are caught in a hurricane and suffer major losses - Menendez marches on the fort and finds it lightly defended - Kills all male prisoners John Hawkins - Slaving voyage 1563 - Protected by Spanish plantation owners who he traded with - Queen Elizabeth offers him a warship in exchange for a cut of the profits - 1565 = 700 ton royal warship jesus of lubeck, eventually gets to Colombia forces them to buy their slaves - His actions receive an official complaint from Spanish ambassador - Doesn't go anywhere - Larger third expedition 1567-68 - Captained by Drake - New royal warship “the minion” - Sails for the west African coast - Raiding for slaves - Faces resistance from Spanish garrisons The English Galleon - Designed by John Hawkins - Idea is to rebuild the English Navy; racebuilt boat (the galleon is fast) - Carries heavy guns - More accurate than the spanish in terms of guns (they did not have to get as close to the Spanish) - Elizabeth issues a letter of reprisal to drake and hawkins (attack spanish ships as a means of getting back things that were lost in vera cruz) - Considered as “sea dogs” by the Spanish (they are denied of any legal protections) - Executed without leniency - Sir Francis Drake (most famous sea dog) - Three expeditions on Spanish Main 1570-73 - First trip is reconnaissance - Second trip about plundering, he returns with $250,000 US worth of plunder - Receives financial and political backing - Third trip is a disaster, Drake is wounded - Secret voyage 1577 crown sponsored scientific expedition into the pacific ocean - His ship is the Swan - Drake’s Voyage 1577-1580, “Golden Hind” hit with a major storm, they lose 1 ship - Circumnavigation - Learns of a special passage - Drake captures Manila treasure ship - “Nuestra señora de la concepción” - $72 million dollars worth of plunder from that one ship - One of the most lucrative pirate attacks in history - On his way back he performs the first english circumnavigation of the globe (already done by the spanish) - Referred to as the “dragon” by the spanish or “el draque” - Full blown war between Spain and England begins - 1586, English ships attack many places in the Spanish Main - 23 warships, 2000 troops - Spanish Armada invades england 1588, it fails - 1596 - Drake and Hawkins are dead (die of fever) - These deaths mark the end of the “sea dog” era - Within a few years Queen Elizabeth is dead - Peace between the two nations begins ...
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