Psychology notes.docx - Psychology notes The Roots of Psychology Roots in physiology and philosophy Physiology study of biological workings of the body

Psychology notes.docx - Psychology notes The Roots of...

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Psychology notesThe Roots of Psychology -Roots in physiology and philosophy -Physiology: study of biological workings of the body -e.g. Hippocrates (460-370 BCE), illness = imbalance of fluids in the body -Phrenology: 19thc. “Science” predict personality based on bumps, fissures in the skull -Size of brain region proportional to ability, skull adapts to shape of brain -Philosophy: using logic and speculation to understand reality, human experience -e.g. John Locke (1632-1704), “tabula rasa” Born with a Blank SlateThe Dawn of Psychology -*Wilhelm Wundt* first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany 1879School #1 Structuralism: 1stformal movement in psychology -Tried to identify “structures” of the mind -Introspection: primary structuralist research approach -Thinking about mental processes, then reporting them -not every mental process is available to us, findings couldn’t be replicated and theories collapsedSchool #2 Functionalism: studied how mind helps people adapt to the world “functions”-* William James * wanted to apply psychological principles, influenced by Darwin School #3 Gestalt Psychology: German for “whole”-“The whole is more than the sum of its parts”-focus on perception -organize information into perceptual units -simplifies workSchool #4 Psychoanalytic Theory (Psychodynamic)-*Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)-first verbal psychotherapy, founder of psychoanalysis -separate components of the mind (some are unconscious)-Unconscious urges are sexual and aggressive-Urges often unacceptable at conscious levels-banish to the unconscious -Thoughts & behavior = tension between conscious and unconscious School #5: Behaviorism -Focused on observable behaviors and how we understand them -Stimulus-response relationships (rewards and punishments)-Peak 1930’s and 50’s -Ivan Pavlov, BF Skinner, John Watson -Response #1: Humanistic Psychology, emphasized growth potential of healthy people -Love, belongingness, acceptance needs -Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers -Response #2: cognitive revolution, studies how information is stored and worked with -e.g. memory, language, thinking, decision-making, problem-solving The Scientific Method: 5 Steps to Science
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Step 1: Identify Problem Step 2: Form a hypothesis about the relationship between variables Step 3: Test the hypothesis by collecting data using operational definitions of variables Step 4: Formulate a theory 3 Major Types of Research1.Descriptive Research 2.Correlational Research 3.Experimental Research Descriptive Research -Describes characteristic of phenomenon or group of people -Case Study: studying one person/group in depth -Examine exceptional, rare cases -e.g. brain damage patients -e.g. highly hypnotizable people -Pros:-detailed understanding of an individual-Suggest ideas for future research -Cons:-Any given person may be atypical, nonrepresentative -Survey: set of questions about beliefs, attitudes, preferences, behaviors. Often draw conclusions about a population based on a sample -Population: entire group of interest -Sample: subset of the population that participates in the research -
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