HS102-Exam1 - Question # 2 Causes of scientific revolution:...

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Question # 2 Causes of scientific revolution: 1) By the thirteenths century, permanent universities with professors and large student bodies had been established in Western Europe to train lawyers, doctors and church leaders. Medieval philosophers pursued a body of knowledge and tried to arrange it meaningfully by abstract theories. Science was became a branch of philosophy. In the fourteenth century, leading universities established new professorships of mathematics, astronomy and physics. Critical thinking was applied to scientific problems by a permanent community of scholars. 2) Renaissance stimulated scientific progress. The recovery of the finest works of Greek mathematics greatly improved European mathematics well into the early seventeenth century. The Renaissance pattern of patronage, especially in Italy, was often scientific as well as artistic and humanistic. Wealthy rules and business people supported scientific investigations as the Medicis of Florence supported those of Galileo. 3) The navigational problems of long sea voyages in the age of overseas expansion were another cause. Ship captains on distant shores needed to chart their positions as accurately as possible to be able to draw reliable maps and to void the risk of international trade. Thus, the King of Portugal appointed a commission of mathematicians to perfect tables to help seamen find their latitude. This resulted in the first European navigation manual. When the famous Elizabethan financier Sir Thomas Gresham left a lot of money to establish Gresham College in London, he stipulated that three of the college’s seven professors had to involve heavily with scientific subjects. The professor of astronomy had to teach courses on the science of navigation. At Gresham College scientists had, for the first time in history an important, honored role in society. They enjoyed close ties with top officials of the Royal Navy and with leading merchants and shipbuilders. Gresham College became the main center of scientific activity in England. The close ties between practical men and scientists led to the establishment in 1662 of the Royal Society of London, which published scientific papers and sponsored scientific meetings. Navigation problems led to developing many new scientific instruments like teleschope, barometer and pendulum. 4) Protestantism supposedly made scientific inquiry a question of individual conscience and not of a religious doctrine. Therefore, countries like the Netherland and Denmark
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did not impose religious orthodoxy on scientific questions. In other countries like England, Bacon advocated experimental approach was accepted as long as the ideas questioned or discussed are neutral and independent of religion.
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course HS 102 taught by Professor Dr.locus during the Summer '07 term at New Haven.

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HS102-Exam1 - Question # 2 Causes of scientific revolution:...

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