05129573 Pheeraphuttharangkoon Sutee Final submission.pdf

05129573 Pheeraphuttharangkoon Sutee Final submission.pdf -...

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Unformatted text preview: The Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Smartphones among Adults over Fifty in the UK A Thesis Submitted to the University of Hertfordshire in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy By Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon Management, Leadership and Organisation Business School University of Hertfordshire June 2015 Abstract Smartphones are innovations that currently provide immense benefits and convenience to users in society. However, not all the users of society are accepting and using smart phones, more specifically, for this research study older adults (50+) are a demographic group displaying such an attitude. Currently, there is minimal knowledge of the reasons that older adults adopt and use smartphones. Bearing this in mind, this research study aimed to identify, examine and explain the adoption and usage of smartphones in the UK within the 50 years old and above population. For this purpose, a conceptual framework, a Model of Smartphone Adoption (MOSA) was formed drawing factors from the theories of Unified theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Diffusion of Innovations theory (DoI) and Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3). Seven variables from the theories were brought to consideration, which were Observability, Social influence, Compatibility, Effort expectancy, Facilitation conditions, Performance expectancy and Perceived enjoyment. For the research method, a quantitative approach was selected to examine and apply MOSA that involved the data collection method of an online questionnaire survey that resulted in 204 completed replies during the pilot phase of this research and 984 in the final phase. The collected data was analysed using SEM-PLS where the results found that six of the eight formed hypotheses were supported, and the factors of Compatibility, Effort expectancy, Facilitation condition, Performance expectancy and Perceived enjoyment were important for the adoption of smartphones. From these results, it was understood that older adults used smartphones because they have enough knowledge, time and money to use. They also think that smartphones are easy to use, provide benefits including enjoyment and are compatible with their lifestyles. In terms of usage, older adults frequently used the basic features of smartphones such as making a phone call, SMS, email, and browsing. Older adults are also likely to use their devices for seeking information about their health and for appointments with their doctors; however, from this research it was found that more than half of the 50 years old and above adults did not use smartphones for health and well-being purposes. The contributions of this research are viewed to be the identification and understanding of the factors that encourage or inhibit smartphones use within the older adult population. Secondly, this research can inform smartphone manufacturers and developers of factors pertinent for the design of computing devices and applications specific to silver surfers. Finally, this research can enlighten policy makers when forming decisions that encourage the adoption and use of smartphones within the older adult population. Regarding limitations, these existed in the form of finance and time. To overcome the limitations, this research recommends further studies that apply qualitative research and/or to provide a comparison between western and eastern countries. Keywords: Smartphones, Mobile phones, Adoption, Usage, Diffusion, Silver-surfers, Older adults, UK. Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon (2015) Dedication I Dedicate This Thesis to My Parents, Mr. Krailak and Mrs. Somsuk Pheeraphuttharangkoon, and My Sister, Miss Nuttaporn Pheeraphuttharangkoon Thank you. The Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Smartphones among Adults over Fifty in the UK iii Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon (2015) Acknowledgements This thesis has been one of the most difficult tasks of my life; therefore, without the help of certain people I could not have completed it. First of all, to my supervisors and mentors, Professor Jyoti Choudrie, Dr. Marija Cubric, and, Dr. Mariana Dodourova. I would like to express my deep gratitude to, for firstly believing in my ability and providing me with an opportunity to begin and get to this completion stage of the PhD. I also learnt a lot from Dr. Marija who also was my supervisor during my Master Degree. Thank you to both of you to help me discover my strength, encouragement, providing comments and standing by me until the end of this research. Thank you to Professor Jyoti, for every email and smartphone call and friendly manner that she afforded me. I am grateful to the entire research team. I will not forget how helpful you have been and are. I would also like to thank my parents for their continued support, encouragement, and motivation. I would then like to thank my only sister who emotionally encouraged me every time I felt tired. Without my lovely family, I would have never journeyed this far in my life. I hope that the success of this Ph.D. will make you happy and proud. I would like to personally thank Mr. and Mrs. Shojaie, Miss Coady, Mrs. Anne Pink, Dr. Amit Vyas, Dr. Hassan Al-Zaabi, Miss Penwadee, Miss Lalita, Miss Panita, Miss Chatwarun, Miss Siriruji, Miss Sydney and Miss Pacharawalai for being wonderful friends. In terms of friends, I thank all my friends in the Royal Thai Embassy, in NOUR London, and friends who lived with me in Flat 8. I am grateful to all of you for all the guidance, love, support and friendship over the enduring years. I wish to express my gratitude to the University of Hertfordshire for giving me the opportunity to complete this research and also take this opportunity to acknowledge the help and support of all the academic staff members. I thank all those expert panels and participants who spent their valuable time answering my questionnaires on their smartphones. I also would like to thank Oxford Internet Surveys and Office of National Statistics. I would like to say thank you to the developers of the software that I used- Microsoft Office, Mendeley, Dropbox, Chrome Browser, SmartPLS, and STATA. Without their applications, I imagine that this thesis would be very hard and difficult. I also thank my computers, tablets, and smartphones for being there in all these years of hard work and support. The Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Smartphones among Adults over Fifty in the UK iv Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon (2015) Table of Contents Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... ii Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ iv List of Appendices ....................................................................................................................... xiii List of Tables ............................................................................................................................... xiv List of Figures ............................................................................................................................ xviii List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... xx Publications ................................................................................................................................. xxii Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 23 1.2 Research Problem and Background ........................................................................................ 23 1.2.1 Older Adults (50+) ........................................................................................................... 23 1.2.2 Older Adults and ICT....................................................................................................... 25 1.2.3 Smartphones and Mobile Phones ..................................................................................... 26 1.3 Research Aim, Objectives and Research Questions ............................................................... 29 1.4 Research Scope ....................................................................................................................... 30 1.5 Research Contributions ........................................................................................................... 31 1.6 Research Approach ................................................................................................................. 32 1.7 Dissertation Outline ................................................................................................................ 32 1.8 Chapter Summary ................................................................................................................... 34 Chapter 2 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 36 2.2 Literature Review.................................................................................................................... 36 2.2.1 Smartphone Technology .................................................................................................. 37 2.2.2 Smartphone Features and Services .................................................................................. 39 2.2.3 Adoption and Smartphone Development ......................................................................... 43 2.2.4 Older Adults and the Challenges of Ageing .................................................................... 46 2.2.5 Older Adults and Technology (ICT, mobile phone, smartphones); Are older adults Accepting the Technology? ...................................................................................................... 49 The Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Smartphones among Adults over Fifty in the UK v Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon (2015) 2.2.6 The Digital Divide and Silver Surfers (50+ adults) ......................................................... 52 2.3 Theoretical Background .......................................................................................................... 56 2.3.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).................................................................................. 56 2.3.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) ........................................................................... 57 2.3.3 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ............................................................................... 62 2.3.4 Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DOI) ............................................................................ 63 2.3.4.1 Innovation Decision Process ..................................................................................... 63 2.3.4.2 Attributes of the Innovation ...................................................................................... 64 2.3.4.3 Characteristics of Innovators .................................................................................... 65 2.3.4.4 The Limitations of DoI ............................................................................................. 65 2.3.5 Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) ...................................................... 65 2.3.6 Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM 2) ..................................................................... 67 2.3.7 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) ................................. 69 2.3.8 Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM 3) ..................................................................... 74 2.3.9 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 ............................................... 76 2.4 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework ................................................................................. 78 2.4.1 Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................... 78 2.4.2 MOSA Construct Definition ............................................................................................ 79 2.4.3 MOSA Hypotheses Development .................................................................................... 80 2.4.4 Demographic Variables ................................................................................................... 86 2.4.4.1 Demographic Variables as Independent Variables ................................................... 87 2.4.4.2 Demographic Variable as Moderator Variables ....................................................... 88 2.5 Chapter Summary ................................................................................................................... 90 Chapter 3 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 92 3.1.1 Overview of the Research Process ................................................................................... 93 3.2 Research Philosophy ............................................................................................................... 93 3.2.1 Positivism......................................................................................................................... 94 The Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Smartphones among Adults over Fifty in the UK vi Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon (2015) 3.3 Research Approaches - Deductive .......................................................................................... 94 3.3.1 Deductive ......................................................................................................................... 95 3.4 Research Strategies ................................................................................................................. 95 3.4.1 Survey – Research Strategy ............................................................................................. 95 3.4.1.1 Internet and Intranet Mediated Questionnaire - Method........................................... 96 3.5 Research Choices .................................................................................................................... 97 3.5.1 Quantitative and Qualitative Data .................................................................................... 97 3.5.2 Quantitative and Qualitative approach............................................................................. 98 3.6 Time Horizons ........................................................................................................................ 98 3.7 Data Collection and Data Analysis ......................................................................................... 98 3.7.1 Primary and Secondary Data ........................................................................................... 99 3.7.2 Sources and Management of Literature Review .............................................................. 99 3.7.3 Research Instruments ..................................................................................................... 101 3.7.4 Questionnaire construction ............................................................................................ 102 3.7.4.1 Designing Individual Questions .............................................................................. 102 3.7.4.2 Type of Questions ................................................................................................... 102 3.7.4.3 Questionnaire Types ............................................................................................... 104 3.7.4.4 Cover Letter, Ethical Issues, Closing Page, Invitation Letter. ................................ 106 3.7.5 Instrument Validation .................................................................................................... 106 3.7.5.1 Content Validity or Face Validity ........................................................................... 107 3.7.5.2 Pre - Testing ............................................................................................................ 109 3.7.5.3 Pilot Testing ............................................................................................................ 109 3.7.6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................ 110 3.7.6.1 Population ............................................................................................................... 110 3.7.6.2 Research Site ........................................................................................................... 111 3.7.6.3 Sampling Frames .................................................................................................... 112 3.7.6.4 Sample Size............................................................................................................. 113 3.7.6.5 Sampling Types ...................................................................................................... 113 The Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Smartphones among Adults over Fifty in the UK vii Sutee Pheeraphuttharangkoon (2015) 3.7.6.6 Sampling Technique ............................................................................................... 113 3.7.6.7 Sample Process ....................................................................................................... 114 3.7.6.8 Questionnaire Distribution Method ........................................................................ 116 3.7.6.9 Sampling Methods Summary.................................................................................. 117 3.7.7 Analysis Methods........................................................................................................... 117 3.7.7.1 First Generation Data Analysis Techniques ........................................................... 118 3.7.7.2 Second Generation Data Analysis Techniques ....................................................... 119 3.7.7.3 Reliability................................................................................................................ 120 3.7.7.4 Validity in PLS-SEM Technique ............................................................................ 123 3.8 Chapter Summary ................................................................................................................. 124 Chapter 4 4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 126 4.2 The Pilot Study ..................................................................................................................... 126 4.2.1 Aims of the Pilot test...................................................................................................... 126 4.2.2 Pilot Survey Questionnaire Development ...................................................................... 127 4.3 Development of Construct Measurement Questions in the Pilot .......................................... 127 4.4 Developing Support Questions for the Pilot Study ............................................................... 130 4.5 Content Validation ................................................................................................................ 135 4.6 Pilot Data Collection ............................................................................................................. 136 4.6.1 Sampling and Sample Size............................................................................................. 137 4.6.2 Online Questionnaire ..................................................................................................... 137 4.6.3 Pilot Questionnaire Distribution ........................
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