Period 2 apusuh leq review sheet..docx - The Seven Years\u2019 War(1754-1763 Also called the French and Indian War which is confusing because the French

Period 2 apusuh leq review sheet..docx - The Seven...

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Unformatted text preview: The Seven Years’ War (1754-1763) Also called the French and Indian War, which is confusing because the French and Indians fought on the same side. Also, the name of The Seven Years’ War did last nine years which is really confusing. This was arguably the first world war. The war was the inevitable result of colonial expansion. The French were trying to protect their profitable fur trade and their control of the region. A colonial contingent led by George Washington attacked a French outpost and lost badly. Washington surrendered and was allowed to return to Virginia, where he was welcomed as hero. In 1756, England officially declared war on France. Most Native Americans in the region, and allied themselves with Americans the French who traditionally had the best relations with Native Americans of any of the European powers and whom, based on Washington’s performance , they expected to win the war. When the war was over, England was the undisputed colonial power of the continent. The treaty gave England control of Canada and almost everything of Mississippi Valley. The French only kept two sugar islands. William Pitt, the English Prime Minister during the war created intercolonial unity through promising pay and some autonomy for those who joined the war. The English victory created trouble for the Native Americans. They negotiated their allegiances in return for land, goods, and the right to be left alone. The English expansionism was very disruptive to their way to life. The English had raised the price of the goods sold to the Native Americans. This led to the Pontiac’s Rebellion. In order for the British used germ warfare to win the battle. Also, the war created a series of acts that raised taxes on American Goods, leading to rebellious activities. Acts included the Sugar Act (1763), Stamp Act (1765), Quartering Act (1765), and the Declaratory Act (1766). The Imperial Crisis No colonial power can match Great Britain. After it’s victory in the Seven Years War however, due to new policies it led to a destructive conflict with the colonists. Most of the colonists were left proud of their place in the British empire after the Seven Years War. During the war, many people found differences between the British and the colonists. The British army was profane, lewd and took out violent behavior. The colonial forces were composed of volunteer companies. The discipline also fell below the standards of the British. After the Seven Years war, many people had become distant with the British. This helped strengthen American identity. One of the most important means of the intercolonial communication was the weekly newspaper. Causes for the revolution:1. Decentralized nature of The First British Empire 2. Salutary neglect 3. Increased military presence (Boston massacre) 4. British reforms (no taxation without representation) (DSIB) Narrative' Imperial Crisis: 1. Sugar Act (1764)- established a number of new duties and which also contained provisions aimed at deterring molasses smugglers. What angered the colonists the most was the is new regulation was to be more strictly enforced. Violators were to be arrested and tried in vice-admiralty courts, courts in which a single judge issued a verdict without deliberation of a jury. 2. Quartering Act (1765)- stationed large numbers of troops in America and made the colonists responsible for the cost of feeding and housing them. The colonists tried going against but this led up to the Boston Massacre. 3. Stamp Act (1765)-affected lawyers, printers, tavern owners and other influential colonists. It was a tax specifically aimed at raising revenue, thus awakening the colonists to the likelihood that even more taxes could follow. It was also a broad-based tax, covering all legal documents and licenses. Lastly, it was a tax on goods produced within the colonies. Reaction to the stamp Act was built on previous grievances. They argued that because they did not elect people to the parliament they should not be forced to pay the taxes. 4. Declaratory Act (1766)- Parliament finalizes the repeal of the Stamp Act, but declares that it has the right to tax colonies. 5. Townshend Revenue Act (1767)- contained several antagonistic measures. They taxed goods imported from Britain- the first such tax in the colonies. Also, some of the tax collected was set aside for the payment of tax collectors, meaning colonial assemblies could no longer withhold government officials’ wages in order to get their way. Lastly, it created more vice-admiralty courts and several new governments offices to enforce the crown’s will in the colonies. 6. Boston Massacre (1770)- On March 5,1770, when a mob pelted a group of soldiers with rock-filled snowballs. The soldiers fired back and killed 5 men. The propaganda campaign that followed suggested that the soldiers had shot into a crowd of innocent bystanders. 7. Tea Act and Boston Tea Party (1773)- British granted the foundering East India Tea Company a monopoly on the tea trade in the colonies as well as a portion of new duties to be collected on tea sales. Parliament was once again imposing new taxes on them. In Boston, the colonists refused to allow the ships to unload their cargo, and the governor refused to allow them to leave the harbor. On December 16,1173, a group of Sons of Liberty, boarded a ship and dumped its cargo into the Boston Harbor. 8. Intolerable Acts (1774)- The English would respond with a number of punitive measures such as the Intolerable acts. One measure closed Boston Harbor to all but essential trade and declared that it would remain closed until the tea was paid for. It convinced many colonists that their days of semi-autonomy were over and that the future held even further encroachments on their liberties by the Crown. First Continental Congress- The goals of the meeting were to enumerate American grievances, and try to formulate a colonial position on the proper relationship between the royal government and the colonial governments. Second Continental Congress- George Washington was named as the head of the Continental Army. The United States in Congress Assembled The motion for independence, offered to the Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee on June 7,1776, called for a confederation of the states. The Articles of Confederation- the colonies did not wait to win their independence from England before setting up their own governments. As soon as the Declaration of Independence was signed, states began to write their own constitution. In 1777, The Continental Congress sent the AOC, the first national constitution, to the colonies for ratification. The colonists intentionally created little to no central government since they were afraid to repeat British rule. The AOC had several major limitations. For example, It could not enforce state or individual taxation , or military draft. It could not regulate trade among the states or international trade. It had no executive or judicial Branch The legislative branch gave each state one vote, regardless of the state’s population In order to pass a law, 9/13 of the states had to agree In order to amend or change the Articles, unanimous approval was needed. The problems with the AOC became apparent early on. The wartime government, unable to levy taxes, tried to finance the war by printing more money, which led, naturally, to wild inflation. Peace talks between the U.S. and Great Britain opened in April 1782, when Benjamin Franklin sat down with the British emissary in Paris. The fundamental demands were recognition of American independence and withdrawal of British forces. Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams, the peace commissioners in Paris, were aware of French attempts to manipulate the outcome of negotiations which led to them signing a preliminary treaty with Britain in November. The British withdraw their troops from America and acknowledge them as free. The French started feeling a British- American alliance to the French too quickly made an alliance with the British. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had put an end to the Revolution. Since the Americans had beat Great Britain they also had believed that they beat the Indians as well. Forming a New Government Former officers in the Continental Army whose experience with the Continental Congress had made them firm believers in a stronger central government, and conservatives who wanted to restrain what they considered the excessive democracy of states. The Constitutional Convention had 55 men from 12 states assembled in Pennsylvania State house where many where educated white men. There was no ordinary farmers or artisans present, and certainly no women, African Americans, or Indians. On their first day of work, the delegates agreed to vote by states. The authors of the Virginia plan proposed scrapping the AOC in favor of a “consolidated government” having the power to tax and enforce its laws directly. The members of the house were to be elected by the popular vote, but senators would be chosen by state legislators so that they might be insulated from democratic pressure. The main opposition to these proposals came from the delegates from small states, which feared being swallowed up by the large ones. William Patterson of New jersey introduced the New Jersey Plan. He proposed increasing the powers of the central government but retaining a single-house Congress in which the states were equally represented. Eventually they agreed to the Great compromise: proportional representation by population in the House, representation by the states in the senate. Every five slaves were counted as 3 free men. The supporters of the new constitution immediately adopted the name Federalists Their outraged opponents objected that existing Confederation already provided for a “federal” government of balanced power between the states and the Union and that the Constitution would replace it with a “national” government. Most believed the Constitution granted too much power to the center, weakening the autonomy of communities and states. Although the Bill of Rights- the first ten amendments to the Constitution- was adopted during the first session of the new federal Congress, it was first proposed during the debate of the ratifications. Congress passed twelve amendments and sent them to the states in September, and ten survived the ratification process to become the Bill of Rights in 1791. The First Amendment prohibits Congress from establishing an official religion and provides for the freedom of speech and the press and the right of assembly and petition. The other amendments guarantee the right to bear arms, limit the government’s power to quarter troops in private homes, and restrain the government from unreasonable searches or seizures; they assure that the people their legal rights under the common law, including the prohibition of double jeopardy, the right not to be compelled to testify against oneself, and due process of law become life, liberty, or property can be taken finally, the unremunerated rights of the people are protected, and those powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states. The New Nation The inauguration of George Washington as the first president of the United States took place on April 30,1789. In the first couple of months during his presidency they did not know what to call Washington because they did not want to call him anything that would remind them of monarchism back in Great Britain. The president met with the secretary of state, the Treasury, the War department and the justice department appointees regularly. The most important piece of legislation to emerge from the first session of Congress was the Judiciary Act of 1789, which implemented the judicial cause of the Constitution and set up a system of federal courts. The U.S. had been lacking revenues, and faced with the massive national debt contracted during the Revolution. In January 1790, Hamilton submitted a “Report on the Public Credit,” in which he recommended that the federal governments assume the obligations accumulated by the states during the previous 15 years and redeem the national debt- owed to both domestic and foreign leaders- by agreeing to a new issue of interest-bearing bonds. Hamilton also proposed the establishment of the Bank in the U.S.. The bank, a public corporation funded by the private capital, would serve as the despository of government funds and the fiscal agent of Treasury. The Americans had kept a very good relationship with France and allied with them. One of the main problems with Washington’s presidency was the West because after the revolutionary war the Americans treating the Indians as conquered people had resulted in more violence. In 1790 they passed the Indian intercourse Act, one of many treaties that would help establish more peaceful relations with the Indians. The position on the U.S. in the West was made even more precarious by the hostility of Spain and Great Britain, which controlled the adjoining territory. Washington faced the gravest crisis of his presidency in 1794. In the West, the inability of the federal government to subdue the Indians, to eliminate the British from the northern fur trade, or to arrange with the Spanish for unencumbered use of the Mississippi River stirred frontiersmen to loud protests. Western whiskey farmers refused to pay the taxes on which Alexander Hamilton based his revenue program. A group of framers menaced the tax collectors, and the federal government responded with a federalized militia. George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasize their commitment. The strong response established federal authority, unlike the response to Shays’ Rebellion, which did not benefit from an effective centralized government. Jay’s treaty was an attempt to settle the conflict between the United States and England over commerce, navigation, and violations of the 1783 Treaty of Paris. It was negotiated by the first Chief Justice on the Supreme Court, John Jay. It provided for the eventual evacuation by the British of their posts in the Northwest, but it allowed them to continue their fur trade. It allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle United StatesCanadian border disputes and U.S.- British losses during the Revolutionary War. The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had not been made and not fulfilled in the Treaty of Paris. The Pinckney’s treaty was signed by the United States and Spain, the Pinckey Treaty gave the U.S. free navigation of the Mississippi river and the disputed area north of Florida. Western farmers received the “right of deposit” in New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods and making it easier for them to transport their goods to the east. The United States would later complete the Louisiana Purchase, which would cement this right of deposit These measures helped bolster the United States against Great Britain’s ongoing presence in North America. ...
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