Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2
CULTURE What is Culture? Culture: Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, passed on from one generation to the next. Material vs. Nonmaterial culture EXAMPLES???? Taking Culture for Granted There is nothing normal about culture How people are taught Internalize language, values, beliefs Taking Culture for Granted The culture within us!!! Looking at culture through a Lens = how we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us/them. Instructs us on what is "proper" and "not proper" Guides peoples perception and actions. Taking Culture for Granted "Culture Shock" Peoples cultural orientations being challenged Requires people to question their cultural assumptions Taking Culture for Granted Ethnocentrism Viewing one's own culture as preferable Becomes a yardstick for judging others cultures. Ethnocentrism
Pros Cons Solidify Group Ties Enhance Group Loyalties Foster Group Pride Encourage Prejudice Exploitation Justify Discrimination Practicing Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism Practice of understanding a culture on its own terms Non-Bias evaluation = accepting elements different than own Cultural Relativism
Pros Cons Appreciation of other cultures Condoning or Excusing exploitative or oppressive cultural practices Components of Symbolic Culture Nonmaterial Culture is often referred to as Symbolic Culture What is a symbol? Components of Symbolic Culture Gestures The ways people use their bodies to communicate If used inappropriately could cause embarrassment, misunderstanding, and/or conflict. Examples? Language and Culture Allows Human Experience to be Cumulative Provides a Social or Shared Past Provides a Social or Shared Future Allows Shared Perspectives Allows Complex, Shared, Goal Directed Behavior Language and Perception: Sapir-Whorf Language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world Sapir-Whorf reverses common sense Values, Norms, & Sanctions Values What is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly Underlie preferences, guide choices, indicate what is worthwhile Values, Norms, & Sanctions Norms Expectations or rules for behavior Approval or Disapproval given to people who uphold or violate norms Sanctions Both Positive and Negative Positive Examples Negative Examples Folkways and Mores Folkways Norms that are not strictly enforced Ex.: Talking too loud in a library Mores Essential to a group's core values Strictly enforced (i.e. Conformity) Subcultures and Countercultures Subcultures A world within a dominate culture America has thousands of subcultures Examples? Groups with norms and values at odds with the dominant culture Examples: Skinheads; Satanists; Hippies Counterculture Values in U.S. Society
Achievement and success Individualism Activity and Work Efficiency and Practicality Science and Technology Progress Material Comfort Humanitarianism Freedom Democracy Equality Racism and Group Superiority Education Religiosity Romantic Love Value is U.S. Society The United States is a pluralistic society We are made up of tens of thousands of subcultures = distinct rituals, activities, interests and priorities Emerging Values (p.54) Leisure Self-fulfillment Physical Fitness Youthfulness Concern for the Environment Values and Culture Culture Wars: When Values Clash Value as "Blinders" "Ideal" vs. "Real" Culture Cultural Universals Cultural Universals: Values, norms, or other cultural traits that are found everywhere Examples: Dating, Marriage, Funerals, Games, etc... Specific customs associated with activities differ between groups Technology in the Global Village The New Technology Cultural Lag and Cultural Change Technology and Cultural Leveling ...
View Full Document