Radiation protection.docx - RAD 2102 RADIATION HAZARDS...

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RAD 2102: RADIATION HAZARDS, PROTECTION AND SAFETY Introduction to Radiation Protection The protection to external exposure to radiation is based on the “ALARA” principle. It is the acronym For as Low as Reasonably Achievable. ALARA refers to principle of keeping radiation dose and emission of radioactive materials to the environment as low as can be achieved. The three basic methods used to reduce the external radiation hazard are time, distance, and shielding. Good radiation protection practices require optimization of these fundamental techniques. Time The amount of radiation an individual accumulates will depend on how long the individual stays in the radiation field, because: Dose (mrem) = Dose Rate (mrem/hr) x Time (hr) Therefore, to limit a person’s dose, one can restrict the time spent in the area. How long a person can stay in an area without exceeding a prescribed limit is called the "stay time" and is calculated from the simple relationship. Stay Time = Limit ( mrem ) DoseRate ( mrem hr ) Distance The amount of radiation an individual receives will also depend on how close the person is to the source. The Inverse Square Law
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RAD 2102: RADIATION HAZARDS, PROTECTION AND SAFETY Point sources of x- and gamma radiation follow the inverse square law, which states that the intensity of the radiation ( I ) decreases in proportion to the inverse of the distance from the source ( d ) squared: 1 d 2 This can be rewritten as I = K 1 d 2 Where K is a constant of unknown value.
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  • Fall '14
  • Ionizing radiation, gamma radiation

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