TOPIC 5: Food Additives LESSON 1: Food Additives I What is added to food to improve its quality and preservation process VIDEO #1 WAX - Added to apples - Apples are washed to remove pesticides/residue, also removes natural wax o Natural wax: prevents apple from drying up - Thus, wax is added to replace natural wax, with the help of a chemical (morpholine) o In the body, morpholine converts to nitroso-morpholine, may be carcinogenic - NOT a concern on apples because such minimal amounts NITRATES in vegetables - Naturally present in vegetables (Cabbage) - When interacting with an amine in the body, converts to nitrosamines o Potentially carcinogenic for animals in HIGH amounts VIDEO #2 Today, we have FDA (USA), CFIA (Canada) to monitor food quality and safety ROMAN TIMES - Wine was ‘fortified’ with lead acetate to make it sweeter - Add cup of copper salts to make greener and more appealing vegetables - Plaster of Paris (CaSO 4 ) to flour to extend the flour o One baker ran out of and needed a white powder arsenic oxide (As 2 O 3 ) Nature naturally contains a number of toxic chemicals Cassava roots (lima beans): contain naturally occurring cyanide compounds o Ensure they are properly cleaned to remove cyanide or else people will be poisoned Sassafras leaves - Used as a cleansing agent - Contains safrole potential carcinogen o Banned from being an ingredient in root beer Wileswood Popcorn 1) Contains genuine popcorn 2) Pure vegetable oil 3) Natural salt (not synthetic) 4) REAL artificial colour VIDEO #3 SALT (NA+CL-) salt is 40% sodium by weight - ROLE: 1) Taste 2) Preservation of food Ex.: Cod used to be hung on side of boat ocean sprays salt goes on it and preserves the fish Types of Wax: - Beeswax - Carnauba wax - Candelilla wax - Shellac
- WHO Recommended dosage: 2g/day o Global average: 3.95g/day o Kazakhstan: 6g/day o Canada: 3.4g/day o Kenya: 1.5g/day - Salt is the most widely added ingredient to food besides sugar o Canada: salt is NOT classified as food additive o USA: it is - Salt is prevalent in prepared food: as soon as you switch from regular to prepared increased salt intake o Cheese: Processed cheese twice the amount of sodium o Salmon: Raw: 110 mg sodium Canned 517mg sodium Smoked 1800mg sodium - Associated with HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE - Very few salt substitutes because hard to duplicate salt taste o NoSalt: contains potassium chloride (KCl) but no taste - Or reduce size of NaCl crystals increases total surface area touching the tongue feel more of the taste SALARY: comes from ‘Salarium’ (Latin term for salt) 1) Money given to roman soldiers to buy salt on a regular basis ViDEO #4 Chemical Additives - Flavor enhancers, antioxidants, etc. - We take in roughly ~1lb/year // 0.5kilos sum of 2,000 CHEMICALS ALTOGETHER Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) - Flavor enhancing - HISTORY : Japanese used seaweed in food because it enhanced taste o Bc MSG is naturally present in seaweed Ocean’s sodium reacted with glutamic acid naturally present in seaweed o *Kikunae Ikeda : realized there was a fifth taste to our basic tastes 1) Sour 2) Sweet 3) Salty 4) Bitter 5) KOKUMI – NEW!!
- Spring '11
- Food coloring, Pesticide, E number