Lesson 4 Notes - Lesson 4 Learning Objectives Success in...

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Lesson 4 Learning Objectives Success in this lesson will be defined through these objectives; Describing how engines (diesel, gasoline, electric-fuel cells,and hybrid) function Articulating vehicle choice on fuel mix and demand Describing the function of a catalytic converter Calculating MPG, and vehicle efficiencies Articulating kinetic and potential energy examples on vehicles Relating vehicle changes to pollution reduction. (LEAD) On the Move Transatlantic flight cross the "pond" in about 6 hours (unless you can afford Concord: London to New York in 3 hours. Concord is able to fly faster than the speed of sound, which is an impressive 780 mph (miles per hour). Most passenger jets fly at around 300 to 500 mph. To do this they fly at high altitudes where the air is less dense (thinner would be the popular term but think about it, how can air be thinner?) The lower resistance to the forward motion allows the plane to both fly faster and further (distance is limited by the fuel you can carry), as the flight is more efficient at the higher altitudes (32,000 feet or so) the plane can travel further. Most boats will use diesel as a fuel. It has a number of advantages over gasoline, the most important of those being its higher energy content. The downside, however, is that Diesel has emission problems with particulate matter and NOx, and traditionally there have been few environmental controls to control emissions on the trucks and boats that use Diesel. Diesel also has a much higher energy content in a gallon than gasoline. Steam trains have long evoked feelings of romance and adventure, and these opportunities were long powered by, of course, coal. Diesel later replaced coal, and now in many locations, trains run off of electric. Gasoline Vehicles The basics of the vehicle are that liquid fuel has the stored chemical energy that is released during the combustion process to power the car forward. The Model T Ford in the US was available in 1908. Diesel engines predate gasoline engines. Interestingly the Model T Ford managed 12 mpg - some of the passenger vehicles on the road today achieve only a marginal increase at 18 mpg. This defines one of the major issues with energy use - that of efficiency, measured here by mpg. 8 out of every 10 people in the US own a vehicle. In modern cars, having your foot on the accelerator doesn't mean you're actually accelerating - you could just be maintaining your speed, and working against the energy
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losses of friction and drag, which requires more energy (gas) just to maintain the same speed. Having a streamlined car helps to increase the mpg this way, or, in the case of sports cars, achieve a faster velocity. Heat losses from the engine, air resistance, and rolling resistance between the tires and
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course EGEE 101 taught by Professor Mathews,jonathan during the Spring '06 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Lesson 4 Notes - Lesson 4 Learning Objectives Success in...

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