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face negotiation notes

face negotiation notes - FACE-NEGOTIATION THEORY Outline I...

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365 CHAPTER 31 FACE-NEGOTIATION THEORY Outline I. Introduction. A. Stella Ting-Toomey's face-negotiation theory helps to explain cultural differences in response to conflict. B. A basic assumption is that all people negotiate “face.” 1. Face is a metaphor for our public self-image. 2. Facework refers to specific verbal and nonverbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss, and to uphold and honor face gain. C. Our identity can always be called into question, which inevitably leads to conflict and vulnerability. D. Facework and corresponding styles of handling conflict vary from culture to culture. II. Collectivism versus individualism. A. Harry Triandis says that there are three important distinctions between collectivism and individualism—the different ways of defining self, goals, and duty. B. Japan and the U.S. represent collectivistic and individualistic cultures, respectively. C. Whereas Japanese value collective needs and goals (a we-identity), Americans value individualistic needs and goals (an I-identity). D. Whereas Japanese perceive others in us-them categories and attach little importance to pursuing outsiders' attitudes or feelings, Americans assume that every person is unique and reduce uncertainty by asking questions. III. The multiple faces of face. A. Face is a universal concern because it is an extension of self-concept. 1. Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson define face as the public self-image that every member of society wants to claim for himself/herself. 2. Ting-Toomey defines face as the projected image of one's self in a relational situation. B. The meaning of face differs depending on differences in cultural and individual identities. C. Face concern focuses on whose face a person wants to save. 1. One can save one's own face or the face of others. 2. Those in individualistic cultures tend to be more concerned with preserving their own face, whereas people in collectivistic cultures value maintaining the face of the other party. D. Face-restoration is the facework strategy used to stake out a unique place in life, preserve autonomy, and defend against loss of personal freedom. 1. It is the typical face strategy across individualistic cultures. 2. It often involves justifying one’s actions or blaming the situation. E. Face-giving is the facework strategy used to defend and support another’s need for inclusion.
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366 1. It means taking care not to embarrass or humiliate the other in public. 2. It is the characteristic face strategy across collectivist cultures. 3. It often involves self-effacement. F. Although cultural difference is not absolute, people from collectivisitic and individualistic cultures tend to privilege other-face and self-face, respectively. IV.
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face negotiation notes - FACE-NEGOTIATION THEORY Outline I...

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