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Michelle Raymond14234087[email protected]Black Studies 18001.The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (standing for FREMLIMO) began military operations in the northern districts near the Tanzanian border. It acted as a fresh uprising as the nationalists of Portuguese Guinea.It’s significant because it graduated from political protest to armed struggle.2. The African National Council was created in 1971 to oppose the settlement that would have ended UDI and brought the eventual achievement of African majority rule. The plan called for the end of sanctions and the introduction of constitutional changes charting a slow advance toward political power for Africans. It’s significant because it required approval by Rhodesian people by a whole, which did not occur.3.The ZANU was the Zimbabwe African National Union. As guerrillas based in Zambia and the FRELIMO-controlled areas of Mozambique instituted occasional forays along the Rhodesian borders, these forces were recruited from membership by the ZANU. It’s significant because Reverend Ndabaningi Sithole was ZANU's leader, still in detention to Rhodesia, providing a joint guerrilla effort in 1971 to end Ian Smith's UDI4.Ian Smith created the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of November 1965 for Rhodesia that was audacious in concept and uncertain in consequence. As Rhodesia found itself surrounded by unfriendly African nations, there was pressing for action that would secure some form of peaceful coexistence in place of an inevitable racial conflict, and Ian Smith released all political prisoners reluctantly in 1974, repealed the ban on ZANU and ZAPU and began to think of what he had proclaimed unthinkable in his lifetime - "black power in Rhodesia". He is significant because he eventually ran out of options, however, and in September 1979 the British called a conference designed to settle the fourteen year dispute over Rhodesia.5.The Namibia was another of Africa's anomalies - a diversity of mutually exclusive or antagonistic peoples, brown, black and white, thinly inhabiting a vast stretch of quasi-desert twice the size of California. It was a geographic entity of boundaries drafted originally in far-off Europe. It’s significant because after many years of attempted moves to independence, it finally declared in 1990 a constitution for a democratically chosen government complete with a bill of rights, press and speech freedom, and an independent judiciary.
Michelle Raymond14234087[email protected]Black Studies 18006.Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi was an elected leader who attacked the homelands program as divisive and refused to apply for independence. He was the elected leader of KwaZulu and was the Chief. He is significant because in the urban centers of South Africa, black opinion was largely hostile, regarding the homelands as irrelevant to their condition and unresponsive to their needs.

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