Detecting Genetically Modified Foods using Polymerase Chain Reaction.docx

Detecting Genetically Modified Foods using Polymerase Chain Reaction.docx

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Detecting Genetically Modified Foods using PCR 1 “Detecting Genetically Modified Foods using Polymerase Chain Reaction” Marco Hurtado Georgia State University BIOL 3810 Spring 2019
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Detecting Genetically Modified Foods using PCR 2 Introduction Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is commonly used to increase the concentration of a specific DNA fragment. PCR commonly uses Taq polymerase which can withstand the high temperatures required for PCR (National Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, 1991). Appropriate primers, which bond to the specific gene, and high numbers of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) are required for PCR to function properly. Taq polymerase, being a protein, is sensitive to pH a reaction buffer is used to ensure Taq polymerase has the appropriate environment to function in. PCR works by cycling reactions DNA double helix strands must be denatured for the primers to attach to individual strands heating the solution to 95 . The solution must then be lowered in temperate around 60 for primers to attach to the individual strands. Solution is then heated to optimal temperatures for the Taq polymerase to elongate the specific segment of DNA. The solution of DNA is cycled through these reactions rapidly exponentially increasing the concentration of the specific DNA segment. PCR has seen implementation in the medical field as a rapid diagnostic test for pathogens which may be difficult to culture by other means (Valones, 2009). Another application for PCR is the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs often have specific genes that code for specific traits transferred into their genome. The gene which is transferred must be spliced into the existing DNA strands. Several crops on the US market have been modified to be resistant to the pesticide RoundUp all GMOs with this resistance gene identified by the 35s promoter if the appropriate primer attaches to the 35s promotor the gene which has been modified can be amplified by a PCR and detected via gel electrophoresis, a technique used to visualize DNA segments of different sizes. Such techniques were used to determine if a sample
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Detecting Genetically Modified Foods using PCR 3 food product was in fact genetically modified. Considering the large number of crops currently
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  • Spring '14
  • Cruz,Francisco
  • DNA

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