IB Chem is tree Notes.docx - Chemistry Final Exam Notes SCH3U7 General Periodic Knowledge Matter \u2014 made up of particles particles are in constant

IB Chem is tree Notes.docx - Chemistry Final Exam Notes...

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Chemistry Final Exam Notes SCH3U7 General Periodic Knowledge Matter — made up of particles ; particles are in constant motion ; occupies a volume in space and has mass Table for States of Matter : Solid Liquid Gas Fixed Volume? Yes Yes No Fixed Shape? Yes No (fills the base of the container it is in) No (completely fills up the entire container by continually expanding) Compressible? No No Yes Forces Between Particle Strong Weak (Almost) None Vibration Fixed position Vibrate, rotate Vibrate, Rotate, Translate Changes of State : Mixture — a combination of two or more pure substances that retain their Freezin g Condensat ion Melting Evaporation Ga s Liqui d Soli d
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individual properties Pure Substance — has a definite and constant (meaning uniform) composition Homogeneous Mixture — has both uniform composition and properties throughout Heterogeneous Mixture — has non-uniform composition and varies in properties Element made up of atoms that each have the same atomic number Compound — made up of a combination of atoms or ions in a fixed ratio and having different properties from the constituent element Billiard Ball Model — atomic model developed by Dalton where each atom is signified by a single billiard ball (to show that they cannot be further broken down) — 6 postulates were also created alongside the model : 1. Each element is composed of extremely small, indivisible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are identical 3. Atoms of different elements are different 4. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions 5. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine 6. In a given compound, the kinds of atoms and the relative number of atoms are constant Blueberry Muffin Model — atomic model developed by Thompson where each atom is shown to have electrons in them, like blueberries within a muffin Beehive Model — atomic model developed by Rutherford where the
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protons and electrons are in a beehive-like shape determined through the use of the gold-foil experiment (where a ray of alpha particles were aimed at a gold foil and flashes of light were detected on a fluorescent screen ) Planetary Model — the current atomic model that was developed by Bohr where electrons are placed in orbitals that go around the nucleus of the atom — Determined by Bohr’s experiment: hydrogen line spectrum (quantum mechanical model) - Energy is emitted when hydrogen gas is excited → forms visible light - light is passed through a prism, different frequencies are found (color lines) → four prominent ones correspond to energy levels - Bohr hypothesized that the lines are formed when electrons jump from higher to lower energy levels (need specific amount of energy) - When electron gains energy, releases excess energy in the form of light → emission spectrum - When light is passed through a gas, absorption of energy in gas → absorption question
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Periodic Trends and Spectrums Atomic Radius — the distance from the centre of an atom to its outermost
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