Independence Movements in India - Origin of the Word...

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Origin of the Word “White” * The word “white” for race was created in 1681 in maryland and virginia * early on the tobacco workers were poor English ppl * England runs out of poor indentured servants to send over to the US * turn to black and native american people to work * Bacon’s rebellion- all workers against small rich white population * rich ppl got scared and coined the term “white” as a class Background There are sizable communities of nearly every religion on Earth in India Why is religion and culture significant when discussing Indian Independence? British used a “divide and rule” strategy within India to create contrary forces within Indian population to prevent a “National Movement” British Rule in India Became interested in India when then English East India Co set up trading posts along the coast in the early 17th century “Indian Uprising” of 1857-58 (1st War for Indian Independence) Mughal empire ruled until 1858 and there was an uprising against the East India Co The British empire stepped in At the start of the ryule, they recognise the ‘500 Princely States’ who maintain autonomy Slowly loose authority India was ruled by a Viceroy and and admin of 5000 officials form London 300,000,000 Indians were controlled by an army of 300,000 of which 100,000 were British “Benefits” Argued that India benefited from British rule because of the rail system, judicial system, and efficient administration Britain benefited from a trade imbalance with India Britain would ship raw materials to UK, which were manufactured and sent back to India, where they were forced into the market and sold for a profit Indian soldiers were used to uphold British empires elsewhere (WW1- 1.5 million Indian soldiers) “A great experiment”- used by the British after slavery by using indentured servants from India to work in other British colonies in Africa and Asia (bound by a contract) Indian Diaspora Mauritius, Malaysia, Fiji, Trinidad, South africa, Kenya, and other colonies Although India has its independence, indentured servitude of Indians/Nepalese, Sri Lankans continues in the middle east Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman use Indians to build their colonies Methods of Indian Independence:
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Origin, development, outcome Foundation: Mohandas Gandhi and satyagraha (soul force)- ordinary ppl can bring about great change by using peaceful means (Todd) Involves non-cooperation, boycotts of British schools, law courts, and British goods Bc a physical fight against the British was nearly impossible, but boycotting hurt their economy Indian National Congress (INC) - a political party that was initially very inclusive of different religions when it was created, but it lacked economic diversity Created by rich, privileged Indians Gandhi recognized that this was an issue and was going to divide the people The Khalifat movement headed by Muhammad and Shaukat Ali were great supporters of Gandhi (gave the INC lots of money)
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  • Fall '16
  • Partition of India, Indian National Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas Gandhi

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