CHAPTER FIVE Consumer Markets and Buyer Behavior
Chapter Overview The goal of marketing is to affect how customers think about and behave toward the organization and its market offerings. But to affect the whats, whens, and hows of buying behavior, marketers must first understand the whys. This chapter considers the final consumer buying influences and processes.
Chapter Objectives Define the consumer market and construct a simple model of consumer buyer behavior. Name the four major factors that influence consumer buyer behavior. List and define the major types of buying decision behavior and the stages in the buyer decision process. Describe the adoption and diffusion process of new products.
Model of Consumer Behavior (Obj. 1) Consumer market . All of the personal consumption of final consumers. Consumer buyer behavior : The buying behavior of final consumers, individuals and households, who buy goods and services for personal consumption.
Consumers make many buying decisions every day, and the buying decision is the focal point of the marketer’s effort. Most large companies research consumer buying decisions in great detail to answer questions about what consumers buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behavior is not so easy—the answers are often locked deep within the consumer’s mind.
The central question for marketers is: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? The starting point is the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior: This figure shows that marketing and other stimuli enter the consumer’s “black box” and produce certain responses. Marketers must figure out what is in the buyer’s black box.
Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps: product, price, place, promotion. Other stimuli include major forces and events in the buyer’s environment: economic, technological, social, and cultural. The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer’s “black box,” which has two parts. 1. The buyer’s characteristics influence how he perceives and reacts to the stimuli. 2. The buyer’s decision process itself affects the buyer’s behavior.
Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior (Obj. 2) Consumer behaviors and purchases are influenced strongly by four major factors. For the most part, marketers cannot control such factors, but they must take them into account.
1- Cultural factors Culture : is the set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions . Subcultures: are groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations; e.g., nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic regions .
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- Summer '13