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Unformatted text preview: A History of the Osage People You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. A H I S TORY OF T H E O S AG E P E OP L E Louis F. Burns TH E U N I V E RSIT Y OF A LA BA M A PR E SS Tuscaloosa and London You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. Copyright © 2004 The University of Alabama Press Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487-0380 All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America Originally published by the author in 1989 Typeface: Bembo ∞ The paper on which this book is printed meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Science–Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Burns, Louis F. A history of the Osage people / Louis F. Burns.— [New ed.] p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8173-1319-2 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-8173-5018-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Osage Indians—History. I. Title. E99.O7.B85 2004 978.004′9752—dc21 2003007997 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data available You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. To my wife, Ruth, who is my greatest fan, my severest critic, and Wa ta Nontsa. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. Contents Illustrations ix Preface to the New Edition xi Preface to the First Edition xiii PART ON E: THE ASCENT OF THE OSAGE PEOPLE, 1200–1803 1. Osage Origins 3 2. The Osage Empire 23 3. Osage Relationships with Euro-Americans, 1675–1803 87 PART TWO: ERODING THE OSAGE CIVILIZATION, 1803–1850 4. Coming of the Americans 139 5. Treaties and Land Cessions 147 6. The Indian State and Removal 7. The Effects of Removal 172 186 8. Osage Culture and United States’ Policy 9. The Search for Comprehension 198 218 PART THR E E: FACING THE FOU R HORSEM EN, 1850–1865 10. Pestilence Strikes the People 233 11. The White Man’s War Visits the Osages 246 PART FOU R: THE EU RO-A M ERICAN AFFLICTION, 1865–1875 12. The Outcasts 271 13. Osage Land Cession of 1865 281 14. The End of Indian Treaty-Making 15. The Drum Creek Treaty 292 300 You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. viii / Contents 16. The Osage Removal 17. The Final Move 314 335 PART FIV E: THE ROA D TO ACCOM MODATION, 1875–1906 18. Farewell to the Past 357 19. Bluestem and Cattle 368 20. Constitutional Government and Allotment 390 PART SIX: STAN DING IN TWO WOR LDS, 1906–1989 21. Black Gold 417 22. Indian In®uences and the Modern Indian 23. Epilogue Notes Bibliography Index 445 486 497 529 541 You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. Illustrations Fig. 1. Osage Tribal Organization 5 Fig. 2. Woodland-Osage Comparative Designs Fig. 3. Two Ho E Ka Snares 8 13 Fig. 4. The Relative Location of the Osage Empire in the United States Fig. 5. Osage Expansion, 1500–1800 31 Fig. 6. The Osage Domain and Routes to the Far West Fig. 7. Osage Government: Gentile Government 36 39 Fig. 8. Osage Government: Three Groups of Bands 42 Fig. 9. Osage Villages and Camps in Missouri 46 Fig. 10. Osage Villages and Camps in Kansas 57 Fig. 11. Osage Villages and Camps in Oklahoma Fig. 12. Osage Trails in Missouri 65 73 Fig. 13. Osage Trails in Kansas 76 Fig. 14. Osage Trails in Oklahoma Fig. 15. Cultural Contrasts 78 88 Fig. 16. French and British-American Forts, 1730–1757 Fig. 17. Missouri River Trade, 1775–1776 105 Fig. 18. Assignment of Traders, 1794–1795 108 Fig. 19. Location of Indian Nations, 1803 112 Fig. 20. Population of Louisiana, 1771 Fig. 21. Cherokee Strip and Outlet 26 100 120 162 You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. x / Illustrations Fig. 22. Cessions of 1808 167 Fig. 23. Cession of 1818 169 Fig. 24. Cession of 1825 170 Fig. 25. Osage Age Groups in 1878 178 Fig. 26. Emigrant Indian Groups of the Northeast and Old Northwest and Their Respective Populations, 1829 184 Fig. 27. Emigrant Nations on Former Osage Domain in Missouri Fig. 28. Emigrant Nations on Former Osage Domain in Kansas Fig. 29. Emigrant Nations on Former Osage Domain in Oklahoma Fig. 30. Osage-Cherokee Problems Fig. 31. Kiowa Calendar 188 190 192 216 Fig. 32. Harmony School, 1824–1825 Fig. 33. Osage Missions 187 221 222 Fig. 34. Known Osage Epidemics Fig. 35. Estimates of Osage Population Fig. 36. Kansas Territory 249 Fig. 37. Kansas in 1862 252 Fig. 38. Kansas Population Growth Fig. 39. Leases of 1893 375 Fig. 40. Leases of 1898 376 Fig. 41. Leases of 1900 377 Fig. 42. Leases of 1901 378 Fig. 43. Leases of 1904 380 Fig. 44. Leases of 1905 382 239 243 266 You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. Preface to the New Edition Several improvements have been made in this Osage history. Most of Part One has been almost entirely omitted in order to enable the reader to start right off with the Osages. The appendices have also been deleted. Since the botany section, added originally as a point of interest, was general and not Osage speci¤c, it was not needed here. The biographical section has been reluctantly left out to conserve space. A number of corrections were necessary. An incredible amount of archaeological developments have occurred in the past decade, and the same is true of Indian literature. This new information has been added. Most of the additions are clari¤cations. Transmitting a thought from one person to another can be tricky. Rereading something years after it was written often allows one to see the need for clari¤cation. A signi¤cant addition is a redesigned population (1878) graph (Fig. 25) that allows the reader to view the entire graph on one page. The use of story in lieu of myth in this account must be justi¤ed. There are, of course, distinctions among myth, legend, and folk tales. However, that myth is sometimes taken as a fable is a deep concern. Myths should always be taken as a part of sincere religious devotion. In the haste to get the history into print, its original preface omitted an important recognition, that is, not giving acknowledgment to a dear, sweet man, Dr. Abraham P. Nasatir, who gave us a whole day of his valuable time. If the Spanish period in the Osage history has special merit, it is because of the late Dr. Nasatir. The ¤rst preface acknowledges my wife Ruth as my helper for forty-four years. Now, in 2002, I must thank her for ¤fty-seven years. As a ¤nal note, I would like to stress again the lessons of the Osage experience as exposed in the history. The ¤rst lesson is that of being adaptive to change—this is the only constant. The second is to love the earth, for it is all we have. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. xii / Preface to the New Edition In the Osage Ne ke A Tun ka (Great Words of the Ancient People), there is a thought we have paraphrased in American-style English: To touch the earth is to touch the past, the present, and the future. We hope this account of the Osage experience, bought at such a terrible price, will encourage each of us to keep in touch with the earth, for the earth is truly our past, present, and future. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. Preface to the First Edition When a person becomes rash enough to undertake the writing of history, it behooves him to explain his views about it. De¤ning history is no easy task. It may be a simple chronicle of events or it might be an intricate web of human intrigue. Whatever history might be, it cannot be the same as the actual event or experience. Obviously, to write an action or perform deeds of yore on paper is not possible. Thus, history through necessity must capture only the essences of the past, and in doing this it becomes interpretative. All history, therefore, is interpretative. This places a terrible burden upon the writer of history. One must try to rise above backgrounds and truthfully and faithfully re®ect the past of those who are no longer alive to defend themselves. This is especially dif¤cult because it is easier to condemn than it is to praise. If one condemns, it should be for a constructive reason. Praise is a reward for something above the ordinary, and it too should be used constructively. A writer of history must try to exercise restraint and seek moderation in the presentation. The lure of overstatement and understatement is always with us. With these thoughts in mind, I would like to express a few of my goals. The writing of this history began long ago in the idle hours of my childhood. It started as a boyhood dream and simmered in the mind of a young man. Through maturity, it began to solidify and now in my “golden years” it has become a reality. This history was over three-hundred years in the making and a lifetime in the writing. Along the way, decisions about interpretation and presentation were made. Very early, it was decided that the Osage viewpoint would prevail—it would hold the center of the stage. If I have erred, I have tried to err on behalf of the Osages. Some will accuse me of being biased in favor of the You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. xiv / Preface to the First Edition Osages. My answer is, “It is time for some bias in favor of the Osages—there has been so much bias against them.” Another priority is to avoid the “Lo! The poor Indian,” practice, which seeks to point to the great evils committed against Indians. If this were all it did, it would not be so repulsive, but it also points the accusing ¤nger at all who have descended from those people who treated Indians so shabbily. It is an outright bid for sympathy and relieves one of the need to comprehend. The Osages do not need or want sympathy, but they desperately need understanding. It would be misleading to allow the reader to think this history is the work of a single person. A glance at the bibliography will show a legion of contributors. I have carefully tried to credit these contributions in the footnotes. I cannot possibly list all those who assisted in the writing of this history, but I would like to mention a few. Maude Cheshewalla often discussed the Osage People with me. Her store of Osage life and culture was remarkable. She will be mournfully missed in the days ahead. Mr. Joe Revelette placed us heavily in debt for the collection of papers he accumulated during his terms as a council member. Chief Sylvester Tinker has over the years discussed many Osage matters and has ¤lled in many blanks. No one can imagine how much my wife of forty-four years has helped. Speci¤cally, the index is all Ruth’s work but her help went far beyond this. If some of the things about the organization and presentation of this history seem strange, this is not accidental. I deliberately tried to establish a different pattern for Indian histories. However, to avoid any misunderstandings, I would like to explain what I was trying to do. The history opens with a prologue and ends with an epilogue. In every history there are lessons to be learned. The prologue is meant to alert the reader to the central theme running through the chronicle of events, that is, survival in its array of costumes. The epilogue returns to this theme in order to see how the Osages fared as a result of the Ordeal and what we as a country should learn from their experience. This is a simple fundamental question and it has a simple fundamental answer. The drama that unfolds in Osage history is exciting. Before our eyes we see a proud but disciplined people rise to become the most potent force in mid–America. Equally vivid is the soul-rendering erosion of all they had. Their lands, their culture, their pride, their discipline, and their population were gone. Only shreds and tatters remained. Yet they did not despair. Money came in undreamed torrents, but it could not buy what was gone. Facing reality, these remnants turned to the present. Again, rising from the ashes of their past the Osages are seeking through excellence to become “the people.” You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. A History of the Osage People You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. PART ONE The Ascent of the Osage People, – You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. Osage Origins T H E P RE H I S TOR I C O S AGE S Introduction While there is considerable amount of disagreement about Osage origins, it is clear the Osage people originated east of the Mississippi. According to Osage traditions, as interpreted by J. Owen Dorsey, the Osage (Dhegiha Sioux) homeland was the Chesapeake Piedmont.1 Recent archaeological ¤ndings seem to indicate that both the Dhegiha Sioux and Chewere Sioux were the Indian-Knoll and shell mound culture of Kentucky and Tennessee. While this would not necessarily negate the Chesapeake concept, it would tend to trace their westward migration. The Indian-Knoll theory makes a de¤nite connection with the Folsom culture.2 Shell Mound Culture Sizable numbers of so-called shell mounds can be found along the Ohio River and lower reaches of the Tennessee River. We say “so-called” because shells actually make up a small percentage of the mounds. The surviving artifacts show that the phase was primarily a hunting culture that used mussels and gathering to supplement their diet. Quapaw legends clearly link the Quapaw and other Dhegiha Sioux (Osage, Quapaw, Ponca, Omaha, and Kansas) with the Indian-Knoll. This, in turn, almost certainly indicates a descent from the Folsom and Clovis cultures because the lower levels of the mounds and the nearby rock shelters and caves are proven to be from the Folsom culture. Because the occupation seemingly was continuous from around 8000 b.c. to a.d. 1300, some justi¤cation for a claim for this descent exists.3 A combination of archaeology and the body of Chewere/Dhegiha stories and legends leave little doubt that both the Dhegiha and their near kins- You are reading copyrighted material published by the University of Alabama Press. Any posting, copying, or distributing of this work beyond fair use as defined under U.S. Copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. For permission to reuse this work, contact the University of Alabama Press. 4 / Osage Origins men the Chewere Sioux (Missouria, Otoe, Iowa, and Winnebago) remained primarily Archaic throughout most of the Woodland period. That is, while they almost certainly adopted many Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian traits, the Archaic culture remained the base culture of both the Dhegiha and Chewere. Some Dhegiha and Chewere undoubtedly became a part of the late Mississippian Oneota people. Certainly, de Soto’s expedition clearly shows that in the mid-1500s the Quapaw exhibited Mississippian Southern culture. It seems probable that the Hopewell phase encompassed several different Indian groups instead of being composed of only one people. Doubts certainly exist when the manner of Hopewell expansion is considered. The original Hopewell people differed from the western extension or Illinois Hopewellians. The core Hopewell estate group did not expand through conquest and the forced adoption of conquered groups but instead accepted other groups who wished to join them and absorbed them into their culture without coercion. However, the Illinois Hopewellians evidently...
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