GlossaryA prioriConceived or formulated before an investigation.AltmetricsThe creation and study of new metrics based on the Social Web for analyzing and informing scholarship.Applicability and transferabilityThe feasibility of applying qualitative research findings to other samples and other settings.Applied researchResearch conducted to gain knowledge that has a practical application and contributes in some way to a modification of practice.AttritionA threat to internal validity resulting from loss of subjects during a study.Audit trailDetailed documentation of sources of information, data, and design decisions related to a qualitative research study.Bar chartA graphic presentation for nominal or ordinal data that represents the categories on the horizontal axis and frequency on the vertical axis.Basic researchTheoretical, pure, fundamental, or bench research done to advance knowledge in a given subject area.BeneficenceA basic principle of ethics that states that persons should have their decisions respected, be protected from harm, and have steps taken to ensure their well-being.BibliometricsThe study of publication patterns.Bivariate analysisAnalysis of two variables at a time, as in correlation studies.BlindedA type of review in which the peer reviewer is unaware of the author’s identity, so personal influence is avoided.Boolean operators
The words AND, OR, and NOT, which are used to join or exclude search terms.Box plotA graphic presentation that marks the median of the values in the middle of the box and the 25th and 75th percentiles as the lower and upper edges of the box, respectively. It indicates the relative position ofthe data for each group and the spread of the data for comparison.BracketingA method of limiting the effects of researcher bias and setting them aside by demonstrating awareness of potential suppositions of the researcher.CalibrationThe use of procedures to minimize measurement error associated with physical instruments by objectively verifying that the instrument is measuring a characteristic accurately.Case-control studyAn intact-group design that involves observation of subjects who exhibit a characteristic matched with subjects who do not. Differences between the subjects allow study of relationships between risk and disease without subjecting healthy individuals to illness.Case research methodsThe meticulous descriptive exploration of a single unit of study such asa person, family group, community, or other entity.Case studyThe meticulous descriptive exploration of a single unit of study such asa person, family group, community, or other entity.Causal-comparative studyAn intact-group design that involves categorization of subjects into groups. An outcome of interest is measured and differences are attributed to the differences in classification of subjects.