Sociology 001-notes for exam 3 - Sociology 001-Notes for...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Sociology 001-Notes for Exam 3 Social Structure: Agency: The power that we as individuals have to change the social structure. Social Dilemma: The experience of each person in a group pursuing his or her self-interest, regardless of the potential ruin for everyone. Tragedy of the Commons: A situational model in which common but limited resources are available to everyone. Free rider problem: Individuals who acquire a good or service without risking any personal costs or contributing anything in return. How can we solve social dilemmas? -Privatization? -Establishing communication? -Centralize control of resources (i.e.—government)? Bureaucracy: A large hierarchical organization that is governed by formal rules and regulations and that has a clear specification of work tasks. Ex. Penn State -Clear levels of authority, with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upward. -Division of labor -Written rules -Written communication and records-not necessarily on paper, can be electronic. -Impersonality (rules applied uniformly) Although he stressed the functional necessity of bureaucracies in complex Western societies, Weber warned that they could take on a life of their own, becoming impersonal iron cages for those within them. -Ex. March of Dimes: founded to fight polio, but bureaucracy changed today to help premature babies. The McDonaldization of society (Ritzer, 2000). -Efficiency -Calculability -Predictability: of food, buildings, uniforms -Control As we become more bureaucratized, we as society can see that things (institutions) in society that are not like McDonalds have become very much McDonalds. -Are students in universities becoming like hamburgers? -ID numbers, GPA, SAT scores A person’s experience in a large bureaucracy depends in part on where he or she fits in the overall hierarchy of the organization. Those working from the conflict
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
perspective would point out that some people are dehumanized by their place in the hierarchy, while others benefit from theirs. Executives still tend to be a homogenous group. 90% of chief executives in the US are white and 77% are men (US Bureau of the Census, 2004a). In addition, executives’ educational, social, and familiar experiences are remarkably similar (Kanter, 1977; Mills, 1956) -Whenever executives step down from top positions, they tend to appoint people like themselves The more closed and exclusive the network of executives, the more difficult it is for “outsiders” to break in. The insiders then perceive the difficulty of outsiders to gain access to the top level of the organization as a sign of their incompetence and an indicator that the insiders were right to close their ranks in the first place. For most middle-level employees, the hope of upward mobility is just that—hope.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course SOC 001 taught by Professor Sturm,robertarth during the Fall '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Page1 / 12

Sociology 001-notes for exam 3 - Sociology 001-Notes for...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online