Soc 001- Notes for Exam 4 - 11/26/07 Sex v. gender...

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11/26/07 Sex v. gender Difference between “sex ” and “gender Sex: biological Gender: social baggage, roles: man/woman, masculine/feminine A little bit about sex… Genetically normal females are karyotype 46 XX Genetically normal males are karyotype 46 XY Klinefelter syndrome : Chromosome karyotype 47 XXY, inheriting an extra chromosome from either the mother or father. Klinefelter is quite common, occurring in 1/500 to 1/1000 male births. These people look physically male. Mosaicism : A person is said to have a “mosaic karyotype” when he or she has one kind of karyotype in some of his or her cells, and a different karyotype in other cells. An example is when a person is said to have a 45,X/46,XX karyotype; that means he or she has 46,X in some cells, and 46,XX in other cells. Mosaicism happens because sometimes cells divide incorrectly early in life of an embryo. For a cat to be a tortoiseshell or calico, it must simultaneously express both of the alleles, O and o, which are two versions of the same gene, located at the same location on both X chromosomes. These cats are mostly female, except in cases where the cat is a “Kleinfelter kitty” which looks biologically male. Turner syndrome: People with Turner syndrome have only one X chromosome present and fully functional. This is sometimes referred to as 45,XO or 45, X karyotype. In a person with Turner syndrome, female sex characteristics are usually present but underdeveloped compared to a 46 XX female. These women are usually infertile and look underdeveloped when compared to normal females. Total number of people whose bodies differ from standard male or female = one in 100 births. Total number of people receiving surgery to “normalize” genital appearance = on or two in 1000 births. Gender socialization Gender socialization : Process by which gender roles are learned. Done through agents of socialization. Differences in gender socialization Parents describe their babies differently, depending on their gender, including descriptions rating their male children as more intelligent than female children (Furnham and Gasson 1998).
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Both fathers and mothers have been found to be more likely to let boy toddlers walk alone than they are likely to let girl toddlers do so (Mitchell et al. 1992). Parents are more likely to tolerate cross-gender play in girls than in boys (Sandnabba and Ahlberg 1999). Gender and education 1800’s: belief that girls around the age of puberty should be kept out of school, made to associate with children, and kept like a child. Admonitions such as the one on the previous slide are consistent with racist arguments that defined Black Americans as biologically unfit for the same privileges accorded to whites. Such biological explanations of inequality are often used to justify oppression by race, class, and gender. The term self-fulfilling prophecy has been used to refer to the outcomes that occur
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course SOC 001 taught by Professor Sturm,robertarth during the Fall '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Soc 001- Notes for Exam 4 - 11/26/07 Sex v. gender...

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