chapter 11-13 sensation final.pdf - lOMoARcPSD|2978345 Summary book"Sensation and Perception chapter 11 13 Perception(University of Southampton StuDocu

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StuDocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Summary - book "Sensation and Perception" chapter 11 - 13 Perception (University of Southampton) Downloaded by Kaylena Flynn-Rizk ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|2978345
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PSYC 2020 1 11/12/16 Perception chapter 11 notes: Hearing Perceptual Process (1) Identify the environmental stimulus, which manifests itself as longitudinal (condensation/rarefaction) sound waves. Physical Aspects of Sound Sound as both a physical stimulus and a perceptual response (think tree falling in a wood answers) o Physical = Sound is pressure changes in the air/medium o Perceptual = Sound is the experience of hearing o Specify a difference between (1) Sound stimulus and (2) sound perception in essays Sound as pressure changes o Condensations (pushing together) and rarefactions (pulling apart) of air molecules creates low and high pressure regions of air travelling at 340m/s through air (and 1500m/s through water) o Important to remember air molecules themselves stay relatively stationary Pure Tones o Produced by a sine-wave pattern of condensation/rarefaction, having a recurrent frequency (1Hz=1cycle/s) and amplitude (dB). o The Decibel scale is used to transform large pressure ranges into small values dB= 20 x log(p/po) p=pressure po=reference pressure (usually 20micropascals) SPL=sound pressure level Complex tones o As pure tones are naturally very rare we must understand complex tones o Many complex tones are also periodic tones meaning they repeat with a frequency called the fundamental frequency These can be split into a number of pure tone Ǯcomponentsǯ, with each component being called a harmonic . The first harmonic (or fundamental of the tone) holds the same fundamental frequency as the tone. Higher harmonics are pure tones with a while number multiple of the fundamental frequency. o Frequency Spectra are a way of visually representing the harmonics - graphing them on frequency (not time). Downloaded by Kaylena Flynn-Rizk ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|2978345
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PSYC 2020 2 11/12/16 o Removing harmonics will not change the frequency. Perceptual aspects of sound Thresholds and Loudness o Loudness relates to the level or amplitude of the stimulus, expressed in dBs o However loudness also depends on the frequency. Thresholds across the frequency range: The Audibility Curve o We can hear between 20Hz-20,000Hz but are most sensitive between 2,000-4,000Hz (Speech range) Blue line=feeling (painful sound) A= a tone an elephant could hear, but we cannot. Each red line represents a constant level of perceived sound. Pitch o Definition = the property of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a musical scale o But remember pitch is a psychological property of sound.
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  • Spring '19
  • A. Barnfield
  • psyc

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