SP Exam 2 Notes.docx - Social Psychology Exam 2 Notes Chapters 5 6 7 8 Chapter 5 The Self The Origins of the Self Self-knowledge beliefs about who we

SP Exam 2 Notes.docx - Social Psychology Exam 2 Notes...

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Social Psychology Exam 2 Notes: Chapters 5, 6, 7, & 8 Chapter 5: The Self The Origins of the Self: - Self-knowledge: beliefs about who we are and how we formulate and organize this information. - Self-control: the way in which we make plans and execute decisions. - Self-esteem: how we evaluate ourselves. - Self-concept: our knowledge about who we are. - Self-awareness: the act of thinking about ourselves. - Possible selves: one’s conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future. The Content of the Self: - Self-schema: an organized body of knowledge about the self (e.g., attitudes, preferences, traits) that influence what people notice, think about, and remember about themselves. o i.e. Sarah plays a lot of sports and that athleticism is an important aspect of her self-schema, she is more likely to remember a volleyball game than a movie. o Can bias memory processes. o Kunda et al (1990): desire to see ourselves in a positive light can influence which of our past actions we are most likely to remember. Participants were either told that introversion is associated with professional success; others were told that extraversion is associated with success. Asked to list the behaviors they had performed that were relevant to the dimension of introversion/extraversion. Those who were led to believe that introversion was associated with success were more likely to remember introverted than extraverted behaviors that they had performed. The opposite occurred for those who were led to believe that extraversion was associated with success. When people are motivated to see themselves as possessing a desired quality or trait, they conduct a selective memory search for examples of past behaviors consistent with that trait. Gawronski (2011): expanded on this – found that when we are asked to remember times when we behaved as extraverts or are led to believe that it is superior to be an extravert, we implement this trait into our self- concept. - The Nature of the Self: o Self-concept clarity: the extent to which knowledge about the self is stable, clear, and consistently defined. Low self-concept clarity – low self-esteem and prone to depression. Campbell (1990): some people have a clearer sense of who we are than others. Found that people with low self-concept clarity tend to have low
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self-esteem, are depression prone, more neurotic, and less aware of their internal states than those who are high in self-concept clarity. Those with low self-concept clarity also tend to engage in chronic self- analysis – an involuntary, negative form of self-focus associated with threat or uncertainty. E.g., sometimes it’s hard for me to shut off thoughts about myself. People with low self-concept clarity are less likely to engage in positive forms of self-focus such as reflection.
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