Henretta - Chapter 13 - War & Sectional Crisis.part2.pptx -...

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Chapter 13 – Expansion, War & Sectional Crisis Manifest Destiny – 1845 – John O’Sullivan Oregon – early 1840s – “Oregon fever” – Willamette Valley Oregon Trail – 315,000 -320,000 Americans (65,000 – Oregon from Independence, MO) 15,000 died string of forts across the Louisiana Territory California – early 1840s Americans – 1,000 outnumbered by 7,000 Mexicans (had huge estates) – end 200,000 Americans Plains Indians – Comanches, Kiowas, Cheyennes, Arapahoes – horse culture Lakota Sioux – hunted buffalo – war-like – used guns, knives & other European manufactures
Souixan/Lakota Cultures May have migrated to upper Midwest from Mississippian cultures 17 th century adapted a horse culture – became nomadic – buffalo was the staff of life – allied with Comanches – dominated – by 1830s the Lakotas were dominant Cultures became hierarchical – enslaved Arikara people . Chief Iron Tail – b. 1840 – survived Plains Wars of 1870s worked for Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show Demand for buffalo hides – 160,000/ year after 1840 Traded for guns & goods
Native Americans on the Plain s Plains Indians decimated by smallpox – Lakota less so Allied with Arapaho – drove Cheyenne out of Black Hills Cheyenne migrated to KS – met with both Fillmore & Lincoln & seemed willing to adapt Relationships deteriorated during the Civil War Family massacred outside Denver & warpath in MN & WS – mass hanging
Election of 1844 Oregon & Texas questions (Southerners supported TX annexation & others argued for Alaskan boundary for OR John Tyler (pro-slavery) called for Texas annexation – Senate rejected – became central election issue Democrats – selected James K. Polk – TN – “Young Hickory” From TN & a slaveowner – mentored by Andrew Jackson “Fifty-four forty or Fight” Whigs – nominated Henry Clay Northern Whigs – James Birney Polk – annexation of Texas - 1845
War with Mexico 1846-1848 Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the U.S. Encouraged Americans in California to revolt sent John C. Fremont to California 250 Marines landed 1846 – settlers in Sacramento revolted – in hands of U.S. by 1847 1846 – settled Oregon dispute with Britain – agreed to Oregon boundary – 49 th parallel
War with Mexico, 1846-1848 Boundary Dispute between Mexico & the United States Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy disputed territory between the Nueces River & the Rio Grande When fighting broke out, Polk delivered a war message he had already written – “American blood has been shed on American soil” Abraham Lincoln, Congressman from IL began introducing resolutions in the House asking

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