CHAPTER 8 TEXT.pdf - OneNote Online Chapter 8 Sociological Perspectives Friday December 7 2018 10:02 PM Social structure= consistent and stable patterns

CHAPTER 8 TEXT.pdf - OneNote Online Chapter 8 Sociological...

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12/12/2018 OneNote Online ; 1/6 Chapter 8 Sociological Perspectives Friday, December 7, 2018 10:02 PM Social structure= consistent and stable patterns of social interaction C. Wright Mills : "problems of individual people are rooted in social structure and their interactions with it" A Sociological Approach to Crime 2 central questions in the study of criminology 1. Why do crime rates differ across locations and over time? 2. Why do crime rates differ according to the key dimensions of structured social inequality: rate/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation and (dis)ability? Sociological Approaches Auguste Comte: Founder of positivist school of philosophy Based on "systematic observation and the accumulation of evidence and objective facts within a deductive framework" ‑‑ following scientific method and moving from general ‑‑> specific Conformist behaviour‑‑ ppl internalize society's norms or social expectations that are already there (aka the social structure) 2 types of norms: Prescriptive: telling us what we should do Proscriptive: telling us what we should NOT do (probs should NOT do that) Becomes necessary to convert some norms into formal laws Emile Durkheim Founding father of sociology Even in society of saints, there's deviance He said individual behaviour is the product of social environment rather than intrinsic traits E.g., kid who is good at keeping secrets (intrinsic trait) will tell the secret if they win acceptance of broader group (soc env) People are innately self‑serving and most rational thing for people to do is reap as many benefits as possible from society Social order has 2 paradigms: i. Consensus (social structure) Durkheim's idea of society as a set of interrelated parts, each important for society to function (functionalist)= "collective conscience" Defines society's values and norms and response when that's broken (deviant) ii. Conflict Marx's idea of society as group competing for power and resources iii. Symbolic Interactionism Gabriel Trade's idea who focused less on social order Instead, focused on social processes through which criminal behaviour is learned ‑‑> Imitation and interaction! Social‑ Structural Theories (MACRO LEVEL) Oldest perspective; looks at root causes of crime in social institutions TheHumanEcologicalSchool(alsoknownasChicagoSchool) (Chicago School‑‑ so obvs focused on urban life)‑‑ sub discipline ‑ city is defined as "a series of distinctive concentric circles radiating from the central business district" Concentric‑circle Theory : divided city into 5 zones, each has their own social and organizational elements Zone 1: central business district (light manufacturing, retail trade and commercial recreation Zone 2: transition from residential to industrial/commercial use‑ an area of cheap,
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