23 BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND PLASTICITY.pdf - 23 BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND PLASTICITY Portrait Plasticity and Language – Case Study Alex Sturge-Weber Syndrome


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23 BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND PLASTICITY Portrait: Plasticity and Language – Case Study: Alex - Sturge-Weber Syndrome - Age 8 - Failed to develop speech - Age 8 ½ - Left hemisphere removed to alleviate poorly controlled seizures - Age 9 - Language recovery began - Age 15 - Expressive and receptive language capacity of an average 10 year old Video: Case Study: Jodi Milner - 9 years old - Acts fairly normal for her age - First 3 years of life were fine - After 3 rd bday party, got epilepsy - Coming from right hem - Rasmussen’s syndrome - Needed surgery to remove right hem - Left hem had lots of neuroplasticity 23.1 Approaches to Studying Brain Development 1. Look at NS maturation and correlate it w development of specific behaviors - Ex development of certain brain structures to development of crawling/grasping 2. Converse of first – looking at a growing child’s behavior then make inferences about natural maturation 3. Identify and study factors that affect both brain and behavioral development 23.2 Development of the Human Brain - Neural tube o Structure in early stage of brain development from which the brain and spinal cord develop o Rolled up sheet of cells that will form the brain and spinal cord o Begins developing about 3 weeks after conception o neural tube fuse – if doesn’t fuse properly – spina bifida - Development of embryo o 100 days – developing brain becomes “distinctly human” o 7 months – formation of sulci and gyri Cell Birth (Neurogenesis; gliogenesis) - Neural tube is brains nursery - neural stem cells o lines the neural tube o has capacity for self renewal when one stem cells divides, produces two stem cells when one dies, the other lives to divide again process repeats throughout a persons lifetime o produce progenitor cells precursor cell derived from a stem cells that produce: neuroblast – any progenitor cell that develops into a neuron § all develop by 4 ½ months gestation § destined to form cerebral cortex glioblast – progenitor cell that fives rise to various types of glial cells - Subventricular Zone o lining of neural stem cells surrounding the ventricles in adults Cell Migration - Begins shortly after first neurons are generated, but continues for weeks after neurogenesis is complete - Continues about 8 months after birth (long time) - Includes growth of dendrites, axons, synapses - Brain is more sensitive to trauma during migration (while neurons are moving to final destination) - Layers develop from inside out o Neurons of IV migrate to their location first, and last is layer I brain can recover first 4 ½ months if damaged – inflict damage outside that window then more sensitive to damage -mabes bc after general neurogenesis has stopped, it does not naturally start again. If neurogenesis is still progressing however, then the brain may be able to replace its own injured cells or allocate existing healthy cells differently
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  • Winter '19
  • Jennifer Hoshooley
  • subventricular zone

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