19 Language notes Copy.pdf - 19 Language Howard Engal \u201cThe writer who couldn\u2019t read\u201d greymaker wasfine Woke up once having a stroke and could no

19 Language notes Copy.pdf - 19 Language Howard Engal...

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19 Language Howard Engal “The writer who couldn’t read” - Woke up once having a stroke and could no longer read - Alexia: word blindness – cannot read - Was still able to write (draw shapes of letters) but couldn’t read what he wrote - NOW – he will trace the word to be able to read - Alexia Sine Agraphia o Alexia – inability to read o Sine – without o Agraphia – inability to write Therefore has the ability to read without the inability to write - Sensory substitutions o Can trace letters in mouth to read Portrait: Multilingual Meltdown – KH - Fluent in German, English, French and Italian - Began experiencing grammar issues and right side of face felt funny - Tumor in motor area and Broca’s area - After removal, experience aphasia (difficulty with language) - Regained fluency in German and English o B4 he was only able to understand 19.1 What is Language? - A system of communication using symbols and gestures - Governed by rules, Innate – do not need to be taught, Universal Components of Language Phonemes - Fundamental language sounds - Individual sound units whos concatenation Morphemes - Smallest meaningful units of words whos combination forms a word Lexicon - Collection of all the words in a language - Each lexical entry includes all info with morphological or syntactical ramifications but does not include conceptual knowledge Syntax - Rules of grammar – way it is put together Semantics - Meaning of words and sentences Prosody - Vocal intonations – way our voices rises and falls Disclosure - Stringing sentences together to form a meaningful narrative, Linking sentences Producing Sound - Humans produce sounds consist of 2 sets of parts 1. One acts as the sound source 2. Other acts as a filter - Air exhaled from lungs drives oscillations of the vocal cords/vocal folds -folds of mucous membrane attached to the vocal muscles, located in the larynx/voice box – organ of voice Core Language Skills - Categorization o Designation of certain qualities to specific concepts § Ex plant category or animal category o Makes it easier to perceive and retrieve info - Labeling Categories o Attachment of words to diff concepts - Sequencing Behaviors o In humans, this would be ordering vocalizations and hand movements that are used in language - Mimicry o Infants § Prefer to listen to speech § Can make sounds used in all languages But as developed more – this stops o Mirror neurons – in the frontal cortex may help children mimic sounds as they hear grey maker was fine visual word form area fine important for reading connection b w ventral temporal cortex t posterior huddle temporal cortex was damaged
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19.2 Searching for the Origins of Language
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