PLCP 3610 Midterm Study Guide.pdf - PLCP 3610 Midterm Study Guide Traditional China \u25cf Chinese ways of politics \u25cb Confucianism \u25a0 The way of life

PLCP 3610 Midterm Study Guide.pdf - PLCP 3610 Midterm Study...

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PLCP 3610 Midterm Study Guide Traditional China Chinese ways of politics Confucianism The way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th-5th century BCE and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia Enriched and revised by generations of philosophers, scholars and officials Dominant ideology in Song10th-13th century), Ming 14th-17th) and Qing 17th-20th) Dynasty Harmony: of the three realms (Heaven, Earth and humanity) Hierarchy: “Let the king be a king, the minister a minister, the father a father and the son a son.”, filial piety, father/son, husband/wife, etc. Ritual: correctly performed to move society towards harmony Morality: benevolence, righteousness, filial piety, loyalty Domestic: emperors’ legitimacy (source); meritocracy (institution and implications)China ruled light-handed in imperial times Mandate of Heaven: “The Son of Heaven;” gifted to the governing, it describes the power to rule and govern over the people, able to be revoked upon failure The emperor should be benevolent If not, you revolt: if you lose, you die, if you win it’s a righteous uprising Not 100% divine right, you have to rule the people well, but no legit opposition Emperor has absolute power bc he has absolute responsibility Imperial examinations (Keju) Meritocracy in China prevailed over aristocracy, using imperial examinations (“Keju”) from the village to national level to determine political careers Based on knowledge of moral presidence A ruling meritocracy reinforced Confucian ideals, literacy, and the idea of social mobility Foreign affairs: diplomacy thoughts; tribute system (actors, general process, benefits for each)“No outer-separation” External policy is a reflection of internal policy, it’s not that different
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Central concept of the relationship between China and the World Inseparability of domestic and external politics China-centered hierarchical world order Tribute system People from outside china show deference to emperor, an agreement to keep the peace Similar to guanxi Hierarchical ritual Benevolence exchanges Chinese ways of economics China was the most developed traditional economy Village subsistence farming China too successful in the traditional period, increased population, need more food What prevented modern economic growth in premodern China? Government instability and the traditional values of Confucianism prevented China from modernizing economic growth methods Social ranking Scholar Farmer Artisan Merchant Pre-reformRural Revolution in China Rural revolution (background, rationales, general process, implications)Mao 3 characteristics: very pragmatic, populist, he needed to survive Basics of rural revolutions Said to go out and talk to people, not just read books, focused on situational correctness not ideological correctness (like Lenin)
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