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PLCP 3610 Midterm Study Guide Traditional China ●Chinese ways of politics ○Confucianism ■The way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th-5th century BCE and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia ■Enriched and revised by generations of philosophers, scholars and officials ■Dominant ideology in Song（10th-13th century), Ming （14th-17th) and Qing （17th-20th) Dynasty ■Harmony: of the three realms (Heaven, Earth and humanity) ■Hierarchy: “Let the king be a king, the minister a minister, the father a father and the son a son.”, filial piety, father/son, husband/wife, etc. ■Ritual: correctly performed to move society towards harmony ■Morality: benevolence, righteousness, filial piety, loyalty ○Domestic: emperors’ legitimacy (source); meritocracy (institution and implications)■China ruled light-handed in imperial times ■Mandate of Heaven: “The Son of Heaven;” gifted to the governing, it describes the power to rule and govern over the people, able to be revoked upon failure ●The emperor should be benevolent ●If not, you revolt: if you lose, you die, if you win it’s a righteous uprising ●Not 100% divine right, you have to rule the people well, but no legit opposition ●Emperor has absolute power bc he has absolute responsibility ■Imperial examinations (Keju) ●Meritocracy in China prevailed over aristocracy, using imperial examinations (“Keju”) from the village to national level to determine political careers ●Based on knowledge of moral presidence ●A ruling meritocracy reinforced Confucian ideals, literacy, and the idea of social mobility ○Foreign affairs: diplomacy thoughts; tribute system (actors, general process, benefits for each)■“No outer-separation” ●External policy is a reflection of internal policy, it’s not that different
■Central concept of the relationship between China and the World ●Inseparability of domestic and external politics ●China-centered hierarchical world order ■Tribute system ●People from outside china show deference to emperor, an agreement to keep the peace ○Similar to guanxi ●Hierarchical ●ritual ●Benevolence ●exchanges ●Chinese ways of economics ○China was the most developed traditional economy ○Village subsistence farming ○China too successful in the traditional period, increased population, need more food ○What prevented modern economic growth in premodern China? ■Government instability and the traditional values of Confucianism prevented China from modernizing economic growth methods ○Social ranking ■Scholar ■Farmer ■Artisan ■Merchant Pre-reform●Rural Revolution in China ○Rural revolution (background, rationales, general process, implications)○Mao ■3 characteristics: very pragmatic, populist, he needed to survive ■Basics of rural revolutions ●Said to go out and talk to people, not just read books, focused on situational correctness not ideological correctness (like Lenin) ■