Lab 10. Anatomy of the Urinary System_Renal System Physiology (1).pdf

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Anatomy and Physiology 2 Lab Week 10 Renal System Physiology (Ex. 41B)
Objectives Understand the formation of urine Become familiar with the parts of the nephron Know the metabolic and excretory functions of the urinary system
Pre-Lab Quiz What are the two major functions of the kidneys What are the parts of nephron State the three(3) steps in urine formation
Blood Composition Depends on three major factors: Diet Cellular metabolism Urinary output In healthy individuals, the kidneys can maintain blood consistency despite wide variations in diet and metabolic activity
Characteristics of Urine Urochrome : pigment responsible for urine s normal yellow color The greater the solute concentration, deeper the color pH of urine is 6 on average A diet high in protein and whole wheat increases acidity A vegetarian diet increases the alkalinity Inorganic constituents in urine: Sulfates, phosphates, chlorides, nitrites Organic constituents of urine: Urea, glucose, albumin, ketones, blood/hemoglobin, bilirubin, leukocytes, urobilinogen
Nephron
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Structure of a Nephron: PCT Extends off of the Bowman s capsule Formed by a single layer of cuboidal epithelium Actively absorb substances (glucose, amino acids, 65% of the sodium, Cl-, and water) from the filtrate and dump them into the peritubular capillaries The cuboidal cells also secrete substances back into the renal tubule (nitrogenous wastes, ammonium ions) The cells have a brush border of microvilli that greatly increases the absorptive surface area that they have to work with Filtrate has been reduced by 65% once it leaves the PCT
Structure of a Nephron: Loop of Henle The proximal portion that is connected to the PCT is also made up of cuboidal epithelium The rest of the descending limb is thinner and is made of simple squamous epithelium, known as the thin segment

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