E6+summary+by+Angela+San.docx - Outlined by: Angela San...

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Outlined by: Angela SanEitzen et al. Chapter 6: DevianceThe Characteristics of DevianceDevianceis any behavior that does not conform to societal expectations. It violates the rules of a group (custom, law or moral code).Important principles to understand social deviance1.Deviance is socially constructed2.Deviance is relative, not absolute3.The majority determines who and what is deviant4.Deviance is an integral part of all societies5.The violators of important social norms are often stigmatizedTraditional Theories for the Causes of DevianceThe Individual as the Source of DevianceBiological, psychological, and even some sociological theories have assumed that the fundamental reason for deviance is a fatal flaw for some people.Biological TheoriesBiological explanations for deviance have focused on physiognomy (the determination of character by facial features), phrenology (the determination of mental abilities and character traits from the configuration of the skull), somatology (the determination of character by physique), genetic anomalies (for example, XYY chromosomes in males), and brain malfunctionsPsychological TheoriesAssume the conditions of the mind or personality to be the fault.Deviant individuals, depending on the particular psychological theory, are psychopaths (asocial, aggressive, impulsive), resulting from a lack of affection during childhood, an Oedipal conflict, a psychosexual trauma, or another traumatic early life experience.Because these theories assume the fault lies with the individual, solution are aimed at changing the individual.The Sociological ApproachFocus on differing objective social and economic conditionsBased on empirical observations that crime and illness rates, to name two forms of deviance, vary by social location – that is, by social class, ethnicity, race, place of residence, and sex.

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Term
Winter
Professor
Ralph Gioia
Tags
Sociology, Source of Deviance

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