Literature Review Development and Maintenance of Social...

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Literature Review Development and Maintenance of Social Capital in Non-Profit Organizational Collaborations Introduction This chapter of the literature review seeks to critically review the existing literature in relation to the development and maintenance of social capital in non-profit organizational collaborations. Non-profit organizational collaborations have recently been the focus of multiple studies due to the intensity of funds required to run the operations of these organizations (Salamon, 2010). This study focuses on the manner in which these collaborations build their social capital and the maintenance of this capital. Numerous studies, as will be realized in later sections of this research, have been accomplished in with the aforementioned areas of discussion; this chapter seeks to establish a critical analysis of these studies. This chapter begins with a definitions section that allows the researcher to relay the definitions that have been laid out by various studies for the technical terms in this area of study. The definitions section is followed by the section detailing the actual review of the macro content on developing and maintaining social capital in non-profit organizational collaborations. In the final part of this study, the researcher summarizes the reviewed literature. This systematic format ensures in-depth analysis of all the areas connected to acquisition, development and maintenance of social capital in organizational collaborations. No particular format is followed in the arrangement of the sections of this study.
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Definition. Social capital is a broad term and as a result, its definition is a marred by debates but with common points of reference within the different definitions. Social capital is defined by Woolcock (1998) “a broad term encompassing the norms and networks facilitating collective action for mutual benefit” (p. 155). Other researchers define social capital as a “slippery” construct which originates from various theoretical backgrounds Onyx and Bullen (2000). The major debating areas in the definition of social capital is evident in the manner in which this capital should be spent and the impact of the social capital in the society. The idea of social capital has been abused in American studies as it is not an appraisal of how healthy the society is civically (Greeley, 1997). Greeley (1997), continues to state that Social capital can best be defined as ““…an analytic tool suitable for the investigation of specific social structures….[not a]….weapon for those who wish to indulge in the popular game of lamenting the things that are allegedly wrong with this country” (p. 593). According to Portes (1998), due to the developed social capital context; encompassing the communal and national contexts, then the argument on definition of this term is also quite expansive. In a “chicken and egg” problem, Newton (1997) inquires if social networks build trust that is important for a civil society or is the availability of expansive trust the inhibiting factor for development of social capital in the civil society. Portes (1998), Landolt (1996) and Greeley
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Christopher Reinemann
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