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Running Head: INCLUSIVE TEACHING IN MULTI-CULTURAL COLLEGE CLASSROOM Inclusive Teaching in Multi-Cultural College Classroom: Engaging Diverse Students Abstract The purpose of this literature review is to explore the relationship between the culturally responsive teaching (CRT) theory and practice in higher education and student engagement with special consideration of the Culturally Engaging College Environment (CECE) model. While culturally responsive teaching is well researched and conceptualized in K-12 education, its application in higher education or as part of the CECE model of student success is still lacking. Culturally competent teaching should fit intuitively into the larger conceptual framework of student engagement in higher education. However, it remains unclear how these two concepts align and can be used together on the meso-policy level to improve student retention and academic achievement among culturally diverse students. Few researchers and educators have called for culturally responsive teaching practices to improve student engagement and academic success of diverse students in higher education. Most have failed to develop a sound conceptual framework that addresses the specifics of higher education. This review identifies elements of the CECE model and the concept of CRT. The major finding of the literature review is that both conceptual framework for CRT and empirical research pertaining to higher education is missing. Among the quasi-conceptual frameworks identified in the literature review, important elements are missing and the conceptual basis remains underdeveloped. Keywords: inclusive teaching; multi-cultural classroom; diversity; engaging diverse students _________
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INCLUSIVE TEACHING IN MULTI-CULTURAL COLLEGE CLASSROOM *Corresponding Author Email Address: 1. Introduction Since the 1960s, the student body at institutions of higher learning in the United States but also in the United Kingdom has become increasingly diverse with regard to race and ethnicity ( Ashwin, 2005 ; Banks, 2015 ). The National Center for Education Statistics ( 2017 ) reports that over the past 25 years the total enrollment of adults in degree-granting institutions in the United States increased for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. However, the differences in enrollment increases among different ethnic groups highlight that structural minorities have increasingly participated in higher education. For example, between 1976 and 2008, the number of Asian-Pacific Islanders and Hispanics enrolled in institutions of higher education increased six-fold, whereas the admission numbers of African American students increased from 10% of the student body to 15% (National Center for Education Statistics, 2017). Enrollment of White students rose the least, which speaks to the overall increasing diversity in terms of race and ethnicity of the student body in higher education.
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  • Fall '08
  • Julier,L
  • CECE

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Christopher Reinemann
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