1 IMPLEMENTATION OF ISLAMIC LAWS IN MALAYSIA AND NIGERIA...

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1 IMPLEMENTATION OF ISLAMIC LAWS IN MALAYSIA AND NIGERIA: IMPACT ON NON-MUSLIMS
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2 Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ............................................................................................. 4 1.1 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................ 9 1.2 Research Objectives ............................................................................................................. 11 1.3 Research Questions ............................................................................................................. 11 1.4 1.4 Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................. 11 1.4.1 Islamization, Legal Pluralism and Citizenship ............................................................... 11 1.4.2 Hudud and Citizenship in Malaysia and Nigeria ........................................................... 12 1.5 Definition of Shariah, Islamic Laws, the Penal Codes and Islamic Legal System ................... 13 1.5.1 Islamic law Penal Code ................................................................................................. 14 1.5.2 Sources of Islamic Laws ................................................................................................ 15 1.5.3 Islamic Legal System ..................................................................................................... 15 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................... 15 2.1 History ................................................................................................................................. 16 2.2 Political Islam/Islamism (Actors) .......................................................................................... 19 2.3 Hudud .................................................................................................................................. 25 2.4 Implementation ................................................................................................................... 27 2.5 Secularism ............................................................................................................................ 32 2.6 Human Right ........................................................................................................................ 34 2.7 Reports ................................................................................................................................ 35 2.8 Impact .................................................................................................................................. 36 2.9 Case Laws ............................................................................................................................. 40 2.10 Miscellaneous ...................................................................................................................... 41 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................... 41 3.1 Research Designs ................................................................................................................. 41 3.2 Thematic Study of impact of Islamic law implementation ................................................... 42 3.2.1 Religious Freedom ........................................................................................................ 42 3.2.2 Marginalization ............................................................................................................ 43 3.2.3 Proselytization .............................................................................................................. 43 3.2.4 Spousal conversion: Unilateral conversion of children and child custody .................... 44 3.2.5 Conversion of minors ................................................................................................... 45 3.3 Impact of Moral Policing Enforcement ................................................................................. 45
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3 3.3.1 Beer festival and concerts cancelling ........................................................................... 45 3.3.2 Religious Bigotry, Tension and Violence ....................................................................... 46 4 Outline of Thesis .......................................................................................................................... 47 5 References ................................................................................................................................... 48
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4 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND One in every five people in the world today professes Islamic faith. According to Mohammad (2002), the total number of Muslims in the world is approximately 1.5 billion people, making Islam the second largest religion. Mohammad also alludes that Islam is the fastest rising religion in the world. However, irrespective of this eminence, very little is known about the Islamic cultures, the religion and the Islamic history by those who do not profess the religion. Islamic laws and Sharia laws are often associated with politics, for example; chopping off hands, stoning women and killing of criminals (Wael, 2004), this is the most common knowledge about Islam. Statistics show that Islamic states have a close association between laws and religion in Islamic states. The Organization of Islam conference (2013) stated that there were 57 Islamic states in the world by then. Noorhaidi, in 2016, defined a Muslim country as that which has Islam as one of the dominant religions, the larger part of the population are Muslims and a large minority are Muslims. Secularization in an Islamic state and the Muslims community is totally different from that of a constitutional state of the West. The most secular Muslim state is Turkey with a population of 70 million. Furthermore, Indonesia, despite being a significant country in the Islamic world, and having the largest Muslims population, Islam is not the religion of the state (Kharofa, 2000). There is no strict separation between the state and the religion and this makes Indonesia the most populous democratic country in the Islamic world. Malaysia is similarly a secular Muslim state. It has an estimated 30 million people of which, over 60% are Muslims, 20% are Buddhists, 9.2% are Christians and finally 6.3% are Hindus (Okene, 2005). 91.8 per cent of the population are Malaysian citizens and 8.2 per cent non-citizens.
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