Intelligence - Motivation Lecture 8.pdf - WEEK 9 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 3 MOTIVATION Overview What is motivation How do instinct and drive-reduction

Intelligence - Motivation Lecture 8.pdf - WEEK 9 INDIVIDUAL...

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Overview What is motivation ? How do instinct and drive-reduction approaches to motivation differ? What are the main theories of motivation? How do I set effective goals to motivate myself?
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What Motivates You? What made you get out of bed this morning and attend this class ? Was it because you are… Motivated to learn about…. Motivation? Perhaps motivated about psychology in general? Motivated to participate in social activities during or outside of this class (e.g. engage in after-lecture activities) Motivated to perform well in this subject and this course? Motivated to ensure that you do not miss out on important information regarding this class? Motivated to avoid your parents’ complaints about you not attending lectures? We use the term ‘motivation’ to describe a certain drive an intention to act to accomplish a certain outcome.
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Defining Motivation Motivation is the process by which actions or activities are: Started Directed Continued … so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met . There are two broad forms of motivation: Extrinsic Motivation Action performed because it leads to an outcome separate or external to the individual performing it. E.g. Performing well for a psychology exam for the promise of reward . Intrinsic Motivation Action performed because it is intrinsically or personally rewarding . Performing well on a psychology exam because you are deeply interested in the subject.
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Instinct Theories of Motivation Instinct theories of motivation suggest that motivation is instinctive . This means that individuals act based on an innate instinct to satisfy certain needs. Instincts are biologically determined and innate patterns of behaviour that exist in both people in animals . The instinct to meet one’s need for survival , food and reproductive goals are some examples of such instincts. Evolutionary psychology, for instance, suggests that the two main instinctive drives are for survival and reproduction .
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Drive Reduction Theories of Motivation According to drive reduction theories, motivation is a response directed towards restoring equilibrium a comfortable level of existence . This comfortable level of existence is referred to as homeostasis . Behaviours arise from certain physiological needs that drives the individual towards satisfying that need. For instance, thirst and hunger drive an individual to find water and food to ensure that the body is in equilibrium. When the need is satisfied , there is lowered tension and arousal . However, people can also be motivated to act to reduce physiological distress (e.g. loneliness ), or meet certain psychological wants (e.g. companionship ).
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