Corrections Note Cards Exam 2.docx - FROM GOALS TO JAILS IN ONLY NINE CENTURIES Jails and Short-Term Incarceration Flashpoints and Controversy in

Corrections Note Cards Exam 2.docx - FROM GOALS TO JAILS IN...

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Unformatted text preview: FROM GOALS TO JAILS: IN ONLY NINE CENTURIES Jails and Short-Term Incarceration Flashpoints and Controversy in Microcosm o Sheriff Joe Arpaio – desires to heighten the stigma against prisoners, believes jails should be like concentration camps, continues to be reelected (five times), belittles and dehumanizes prisoners in his system (pink underwear) o Elected officials run the prison system rather than trained and knowledgeable professionals, may not be the most competent for the position, come in with a policing mindset due to significance they place on the first c rather than the last Three C’s – cops, courts, corrections Historical Underpinnings o Incarceration was a limited piece of the correctional picture o The first jails were located in the sheriffs’ houses, “fee for service arrangements” the money to care for the prisoners came directly out of the sheriff’s pocket leading them to do the bare minimum Demographics for Jails o Some the insensitiveness came from the demographics o Whites underrepresented, overemphasis on less educated, very high percent male Localizing Budgetary and Other Jail Considerations o Forsyth County Law Enforcement Detention Center – run by law enforcement, about detention (not reflected as a priority), no sooner do you build it than you fill it may be felons that should be in prisons o Detention budget taking up more than half of the sheriff’s office expenditure, the majority of the budget is being put into a facet that is not considered a significant part of law enforcement o Length of stay hovering around 21 days, interaction between gender and type of crime reflected in the percentage of women that make up the jail vs. prison populations Pretrial Release Mechanisms o 90% of crimes fall out during policing stage o Bail – targets poor and the people who are victims of it probably wouldn’t leave the jurisdiction anyway o Release on Recognizance – promise of showing for trial date leads to very few people fleeing o Diversion Programs – spare yourself from going further into the system, pair with counseling specific to your needs, if you complete program you may not have a record Current Issues Facing Jails o Legal Concerns – law is not something to get around but must be mindful, correctional officers have been found liable for violations of civil rights, if administrator should have known they are legally liable o Staffing and Competency Concerns – burn out big issue due to major discrepancies in numbers, want to get over to enforcement INTERMEDIATE SANCTIONS AND THE COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS o OCTOBER 15, 2018 Probation Fines/Restitution Community Service Drug Treatment Home Confinement A New Movement or Renewed Emphasis? Intensive Supervision Probation Boot Camp Prison Probation: Recap o Budgeting: prison is always the most expensive and least effective response o Benefit Reprieve o o of Clergy/Judicial Perceived Problems: if we overuse prisons we really overuse probation o Recognition that the criminal justice system can the be W harsh, full force of the law should INCARCERATION OF OMENsupervision Low control to high control but always under state’s usedor against allNeglect? offenders and forreacts all offenses, ideal and reality aligned o Separate butbeEqual Benign o not Difficult to diagram how individual to their sanction, failure to not satisfy can force o John Augustus: social courtPrisons representative, vouching for the individual Historical Progressions of individual to moveworker, upWomen’s in seriousness on the continuum of sanctions o o First Prison in U.S. – 1798 Jersey) o Expansion of Concept and(New Modernization ISPProbation officers see many more failures due to technical violations but may not have higher Mount Pleasant Female at Ossiningstrategies – 1839 (added Sing Sing) criminal recidivism ratesPrison offenders, o Used for more than just first-time suchonto as shock punishment Female Prisonnonviolent and Reformatory Institute for Girls and Women – 1873 (Indiana) Bootbeyond Camps: asociological because of failure to address the needs of the individual based o Stretched offenses, currently includes some repeat offenders with o violentReformatory Prison for Women – 1877 (Massachusetts) onfelonies the hardships they face in their communities and daily lives o o Promise Juveniles – of 1881, Girls Industrial School – 1892, Reformatory for Women – 1920 (Nebraska) The and Peril Intermediate Sanctions o Conditions Attached: standard (reporting change of address or employment), punitive (may Nebraska singled out to highlight some of the delay in the time frame, juvenile facility 10 considered Continuum of Sanctions and Affording Moretreatment Options not rehabilitative, designed to punish), (can be required to undergo years before girls facility and years before women’s facility Tacit Acceptance of Interchangeability of40 Sanctions and Punishment Units counselling, therapy, etc.) o o San Quentin – 1927, Institute foraWomen – 1930s (California) o Is a serious fine seen California as more onerous than more serious sanction, working out the time o PresentenceInvestigation (PSI) Usage Adjunct mentality to incorporate specific program and facility for women behind bars in place of the fine Goals for incarceration Broken Custodial: Windows fits and Model tracks better with supermax and maximum-security facilities, custody about order, Strong safety, leadership, maintenance, neighborhood preventing v. office escapesupervision about 38%ofofprobation, facilities better Rehabilitation: days are behind it, medium-security, about 42% of facilities resourcebest allocation Exploring Reintegration: Alternativescourtyard, to Prison and campus Probation style, Film minimum-security facilities, about 20% of Prisonfacilities Overcrowding: population has doubled, operating at 130%, much more difficult to Mapping Federal State are Differences Question How and do states supermax facilities fit with the custodial, rehabilitation, andreintegration control the#1: prisoners, being forced to decrease the number of prisoners build models cited in 10 (p. 256-257)? more State prisons Institutions orchapter punish without putting behind bars - emphasizes programs intended totoreform vs.Rehabilitation Probation: options aretreatment toofunction extreme and there no middle ground PrisonDiversity in sizeboth (from 100-1000), (changes toisattend level of crime), o classification People go sick and often receive no and mental treatment Alternatives: may lower population, save money, givehealth moreto appropriate sentences, (noinoverarching level of classification leads serious offenders in facilities o not Whiteover guythem) who for dope tried kill himself brings upsuitable debate for whichmurdered alternatives are best fortowhich offenders Strict Probation – report tolike an 34% officer to(underrepresented), fivemain timesgoal a week, random unscheduled Demographics: 93% male, 95% us citizens, 53% violent o Generally, seems rehabwhite isupnot the of the CO’s to home or-place of work, no less discipline, than six months visits crime Custodial emphasizes security, order or more than two years Strict Federal Plus Prisons Community – when there is no individual victim, community o Very much fitsService the supermaxes: prisoners are the most dangerous so extra service Moreisprecaution limited used instead andisrecent for three role to played, six months states always play a greater role taken Plus Restitution – male, ordered tomaintaining pay victim sumto infamily addition tocommunity the strict Strict Demographics: Reintegration 93% - emphasizes 57% white, 74%specified connections US citizens, 51% drugand offenders probation guidelines o Increasing Prisoners Reliance complained on Privatization that they andhad Prison-for-Profit no contact with the outside world in supermaxes House – must spend duration of sentence or immigration near their home, may be GeoArrest and CoreCivic control approximately 95% of prisoners o In cell 23 hours a day, no connection to in community permitted toYour leave onlyif to goprisons to byfor random calls or visits or therecidivism usefunction of Only#2: make money reading the cites thework, cardinal areregulated full,architecture lobby tougher principle onthat crime, formhigher follows Background Investigation: becamp extensive theory,Correctional determine whether Women moved from Central Prisonshould to work to laterinbecome Institute for Women Question o Extensive Potential Problems electronic surveillance (pp-260-261). Based on your theprivate film, which style (p. 253-254) rates, private officers canviewing be suedofbut prisonsarchitectural cannot be (opposite of public)seems is (Raleigh, worth risk of probation, includes drugfor andterms alcohol, etc. –Selection 1935 North Carolina) o the person Bias:the who is selected into what section,family pay tohistory, play (paying of sanction Boot Camp –the similar to army basic and training, insidefacilities? the confines of the prison, basic to fit best with aims of maximum super-max Americans Most Dangerous Prison Alderson federal facility directed by Mary Harris – 1927 (Westmost Virginia) o Controversial: for Sentence Imposed and Recommendations by makingCongruence individual pay for the terms of their confinement), were designed discipline mixedCalifornia with prison labor, never developed a sense of military Telephone-pole o Blindly believed intraining thedesign system, DOC violating their own regulations specifically Harris believed dependency on men was thesanctions, cause of criminal indue women Nonjudicial actors thatindividuals are passing these 70-90%behavior of the time the for male offenders, often opt out of intermediate sanctions to discipline soarchitectural this program helps learn that tostyle make themcentral a better member of at o An plan forthem a prison calling for a fighting long corridor crossed o Pitting prisoners against one another in gladiator concreteness Martha Stewart called Alderson a vacation, left wealthier and healthierhave thanvery when she ofwill the sanctions judge accept the recommendation, victim impact statements society regular intervalsof byrival structures containing the prisoners functional areas o Purposely put members gangs into yard at the same time arrived o Misuse little of Intermediate weight in Sanctions changing the harshness of the sentence oThere has Arms have thea functional areas suchprison as housing, shops, school, recreation area o never been bad shooting at the after being reviewed Separate but Equal Argument THE Pwhite RISONcollar EXPERIENCE Caseload and (PrivateINCARCERATION PSI) Class BiasAND Issues: offenders are able to pay big o Central pole allows for continuous surveillance Question #5: o “Equal treatment usually means less adequate treatment” (Nichol Hahn Rafter) Intermediate Sanctions Built trainees for custody money to decrease their sentence “get as much justice as you can pay for,” private PSIs o Many are out of shape and have to lose weight on their own time Factors Contributing to Benign Neglect o allow Have a very real role to play, but the effectiveness in that role depends onto who you House according to classification levels, with certain housing areasHS or defendants to impactCharacteristics: their sentence,arrested state may be up taskask due o As long inmates as they had never committed a felony or misdemeanor and finished wealthy Offense and Offender and not incarcerated atthe greater rates than male to caseload Community Corrections Legislation: may be chasing a fool’s errand if you believe you will be designed for inmates withthey’re specialqualified needs, those merit extraofficer privilege and so on passed equivalence examto bewho a correctional andcounterparts rely on private for drug offenses, significantly less violent but more property offenses Question #3: Whatsalary does public opinion tell us about the backdrop for prisons in general and a significant amount of money, supposed to reduce number and rate of people in Starting of $18,000 dollars a year o Models ofsaving Implementation Legal Provisions Influencing Treatment of Women: have to have similar programming, supermax facilities in particular locations prison, shift money to localized cheaper options Verbal abuse and physical taunt as diverse as California (Pelican Bay) or Virginia Decentralized: Flexibility and Local Conditions reflective to women’s needs and interests, having theprison, law does not mean that the (pp. 262-263)? o Reduce number of people in prison, reduce rate people go to reduce the money thatprograms Question(Red #6: Onion) One of or theFlorida correctional workers in the film cites the ways in which he would treat the meet the of thetocourt decisions Ability torequirements tailor programs the individual Theprisoners public favors supermaxes contain “worst of theassociated worst” with goes to state prison system best behaved of the in ad-seg. Discussbecause how thisthey tension andthe other pressures Justifications: recidivism rates are already much lower for women, women do better than o Centralized: Professionalism a custodial We favor of tough treatment of prisoners we292-294). don’t understand the reality serving as staff use member influence the quality of thisbecause work (p. Hasn’t had the impact it should due to increase in drug offender punishment, haven’t men be regardless of the type ofbut program, most statesand have only one facility for women of prisons, specifically supermaxes May more professional less specialized individualized Have to tell people what to do at all times of the daycan’t even let the most wellreduced the number of people incarcerated in total but shifted where those people are (becomes oneprobation size fits all), programs/funding usually go after Question #4: Whatprisoner are someoffofthe thehook potential “mismatches” of security levels and classification Combination with is before/instead while parole is at the themajority end of a behaved incarcerated toParole: local prisons Distinctive Aspects and Implications of prisoners (see pp. 262-264)? What characteristics and considerations seem to determine the The prisoners are constantly exchanging contraband even in the most secure prisons sentence, parolees have been through the system more than once and have different Lessons Learned o Doingfrom Time:“Supermax” time is less, likely to be first or only incarceration experience, engaging in sexual Questionassignment of the inmates to “ad seg” (film) and in how process seem to be followed #7: How do experiences of the inmates thedoes filmthis compare with those cited in yourat programing/needs Americans are for Supermax facilities forbeen violent that those who haven’t in offenders the system other supermax facilities (pp. 262-263 Ch 11)?p. 271 “Mentally Ill Prisoners”; p. 278 “Going In: behavior and drug use while incarcerated but still more likely to get sooner reading (p. 254 “People in Corrections: Realization”; o PSI Shrunk training component, macro features cause them not to getafter the best asQualitative Cornerstone: cannot undo thestructural damage a poorly researched PSI the officers, Mismatches between training of the officer and the seriousness of the correctional Differences (Relationships and of Subcultures): pseudo-families, relationships are more The Chain”)? outcollectivist of the prisons implementation clients, workers atmentioned more serious facilities higher mentally paying jobs elsewhere and control genuine, less likely to segregate themselves by race, often share secrets with guards, Many prisoners seeing peoplehave entertaken the system ill and only go o Not just the built environment but the ways in which you managed the environment leading to from a decrease o Supervisory Functions and Issues Additional Distinctions: childcare and child-rearing may be living with child in some cases, obgyn downhill there in quality among officers Incarceration and Prison Many of the officers out of shape, under-qualified to deal with the situations Role Conflict: Enforcement of Law and Helping Offendersmuch more likely care addressing long standing neglect, sexual misconduct Like Michael Santos,aremany prisoners have bleak outlook Beyond the Big in House Imagery supermaxes present Future Directions Incarceration No money or familial support after release, with a felony conviction, no job skills May have to choose to weigh one strategy over the other Skews our image of whatand is really going on, distorted, not lesser tell usnumbers everything Question #5: film highlights some rather profound problems associated with staffing and Programming Availability Recidivism: coming back does in much andwe smaller rates and The probably no education o Reconciling the Bureaucracy training. If supermax facilities are owned/staffed by private entities, how might some of the need to know but are beginning to catch uptointhe rates of incarceration Breeds resentment probationers, good probation officer may have a problems associated with problems associated with privatization possibly exacerbate those seen o Shifting practices and views o Programming “Equality” Paradox: devote a lot of money to the programing for males, women high failure rate in Texas and elsewhere (p. 265-267)? incarcerated are least likely to share in opportunities in the workplace because they aren’t being Most staff are undertrained Broken Windows Model trained in skills for higher desired jobs, setting them up for failure Best candidates are opting for better pay, less dangerous jobs o Incarceration of Women and Intergenerational Aspects of Crime and Delinquency: 2.4 times more Training is 4 weeks → minimum training level likely that children of incarcerated mothers will engage in some form of crime (most impact when it’s the mother who was incarcerated) Continuum ofSSanctions INTERMEDIATE ANCTIONS AND THE COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS ...
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