Lecture Notes Feb 8th

Lecture Notes Feb 8th - Endosymbiont-Theory of formation of...

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Cytoskeleton - Intermediate filaments – structure - Microtubules – structure, organelle movement, cilia-flagella Microfilaments - double helix made of ACTIN proteins - Movement: o Shortened or Lengthened o Slide using motor proteins = MYOSINS - Many Roles - Drive extensions of cell membrane = “xxx-podia” (xxx-feet) - Blobby = Psuedopodia, fine = filopodia, wavy = lamellipodia - Active shape change is found in regions where actin filaments are found Mitochondria - Produce chemical energy from sugars, other compounds - Source of energy - Makes special chemical used in universal way throughout the cell as energy - Wrapped by 2 lipid bilayers Chloroplasts - In plants and some protests - Site for production of energy from sunlight = photosynthesis - Specialized region inside of eukaryotic cell responsible for producing energy - Outer membrane, inner membrane, granum (stack of thykaloids) Mitochonrdria and chloroplasts contain some of their own DNA, mRNA, and ribosomes. They reproduce in cells by division. Biochemically, they resemble free-living bacteria.
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Unformatted text preview: Endosymbiont-Theory of formation of mitochondria and chloroplasts-Endosymbiont = one organism lives inside of another organisms Respiration-Glycolysis in cytoplasm o 6-carbon glucose makes 2 3-carbon pyruvates + ATPs + electrons-Pryruvate enters mitochondrion-Krebs Cycle in matrix, makes CO 2s + ATPs + electrons-Oxidative Phosphorylation in membrane, electrons + O2 ATP Whats all this about electrons?-Atom reduced when it gains electrons (reduces charge)-Atom oxidized when it loses electrons-Reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reaction couples the two o A + B A- + B+ o Electrons contain energy Electron Carriers 1) NAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- NADH 2) FAD + 2H+ + 2e- FADH2 3) NADP+ H+ +2e- NADPH Every step is catalyzed by a separate protein enzyme Initial substrate Enzyme 1 Intermediate 1 Enzyme 2 Intermediate 2 Enzyme 3 Final product Enzymes usually named xxx-ase...
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Lecture Notes Feb 8th - Endosymbiont-Theory of formation of...

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