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Unformatted text preview: ARTICLE REVIEW 1 Article Review: Fluid Intelligence and Bipolar Disorder Grand Canyon University: PSY- 402 April 10, 2019 ARTICLE REVIEW 2 Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve problems and think outside the box to adapt to one’s surroundings (Gazzaniga et. al, 2013). It is important to note that fluid intelligence is related to how people gather, store, access, and use information which can affect how one processes during different tasks (Ungvarsky, 2019). There have been many studies that have gone to assess the correlation of fluid intelligence and other psychiatric disorders, in which research has shown a correlation between low intelligence and the presence of a psychiatric diagnoses such as bipolar disorder (Keyes et. al, 2017). Goitia and other researchers sought out to explain whether the impairments seen in euthymic bipolar disorder are due to a loss in fluid intelligence through various experiments. Throughout the article, the relationship between executive functions and fluid intelligence in euthymic bipolar disorder patients there were two experiments conducted to test this hypothesis which suggests that the deficits seen in bipolar disorder will be fully explained through the loss of fluid intelligence (Goitia et. al, 2017). Methods and Participants Throughout this study there were two sets of experiments conducted: the first including classic executive tasks and the second including multitasking. Throughout the first experiment, participants were chosen based on the criteria needed to meet a bipolar disorder diagnosis via the DSM-IV and the study was conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Fifty-seven participants with bipolar disorder were selected and six were excluded from the study due to not meeting euthymia criteria (Goitia et. al, 2017). At this point the control group of healthy patients were gathered through the word of mouth in the same geographical region and all participants were given signed consent prior to participating. ARTICLE REVIEW 3 Experiment one consisted of classic executive tasks such as the word accentuation test (WAT-BA) and the general test batter (GTB). The word accentuation test was measuring the participants ability to read fifty-one irregularly stressed Spanish words and were scored on the number of words stressed correctly. The general battery test utilized forward digit span tasks, Rey auditory verbal learning tests, Rey complex figure tests, and trail making test A to provide a baseline for measuring fluid intelligence (g). Once participants completed the WAT-BA and GTB tests they were able to move on to the classic executive tasks: Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), verbal fluency, and trail making test B (TMTB) (Goita et.al, 2017). First, the WCST required participants to sort cards according to a feature either color, shape, or the number of items and once the participants correctly sorted for six consecutive times the rules would change and they would have to sort based on another feature. The final score given was how many categories the participant was able to achieve. The verbal fluency test requested participants to generate as many items possible from a given category and their score consisted of the number of correct words generated. Finally, the TMTB required participants to draw lines sequentially connecting thirteen numbers and twelve letters alternately on a sheet of paper. The score given to the participants was the length of time it took to complete the task and a higher score meant better performance. Experiment two consisted of twenty-four participants selected and given informed consent. Both the patients and the control groups were assessed with multitasking and theory of mind test. The first test was the hotel task which included five primary activities related to running a hotel. All materials were provided on a desk with a clock and participants were asked to try all the activities within a fifteen-minute time period. The goal was to get participants to attempt all tasks, not the time taken, and they were also asked to open or close a garage door at ARTICLE REVIEW 4 six and twelve minutes using a button. The second test was the faux pas test where participants were given short, one-paragraph stories to assess. The first ten included a faux pas, in which something hurtful or insulting was said to another, and another ten without a faux pas. Participants were questioned on the inappropriate statements and asked why the comments were inappropriate. If a participant failed to locate a faux pas further questioning of basic facts would be the next step used to assess the retention of basic facts and the participant would return to the story and repeat questioning if needed. Scores were given based on the number of faux pas identified or lack of faux pas identified correctly. Both groups were assessed utilizing two-tailed t-tests for the variables including age, education years, WAT-BA, WCST, Fonological fluency, TMTB, hotel task, and faux pas (Goitia et.al, 2017). Major Findings and Conclusions Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that is commonly linked to impairment in cognitive functions to a remarkable degree (Kamal et. al, 2019). These deficits are often found in the frontal lobe processing which is also a major neural substrate of fluid intelligence (Goitia et. al, 2017). What the researchers found through their experiments were that, within their selected population the fluid intelligence explained the deficits in classical executive tasks but not for the multitasking components (Goitia et.al, 2017). It is important to note during this study that they found when the effects of fluid intelligence were removed there was no significant difference between the BD group and the control group which further explains the loss of fluid intelligence in BD fully explains the deficits (Goitia et. al, 2017). As for the multitasking experiments, fluid intelligence could not explain the differences due to the nature of these tasks depending on the anterior frontal cortex (Goitia et. al, 2017). ARTICLE REVIEW 5 Implications for the field of Psychology Not only has this study helped to bring a greater understanding of the influence fluid intelligence has on one’s ability to complete tasks, it has helped shed light on some debates of overlapping symptomatology in both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as they both share clinical, epidemiological, and etiological characteristics (Goitia et.al, 2017). Within the psychiatric community, professionals can now recognize that there is a differential role in fluid intelligence with the frontal deficits shown in both BD and schizophrenia which can now show the differences in the functional outcome (Goitia et. al, 2017). In addition to this, the author also stresses that only focusing on specific executive function tests could be detrimental to studying and researchers could miss incredibly important information about bipolar disorder patients’ cognitive function which can result in ineffective treatment (Goitia et. al, 2017). Professionals can take these achievements in the comprehension of frontal lobe functioning and advance the treatments given to patients with these clinical conditions. Strengths and Limitations The study provided by Goitia and other researchers provided a strong foundation for replication and re-testing. Overall the population selected is reasonable to find in any part of the world and other researchers are able to replicate this study given the methods provided which makes this study reliable in the scientific field. Conclusion In conclusion, the relationship between executive functions and fluid intelligence in euthymic bipolar disorder patients was able to successfully correlate the loss of fluid intelligence with the cognitive deficits seen in bipolar disorder patients. As this is a step in the right direction ARTICLE REVIEW 6 for research there are still many other advances in cognitive neuroscience that need to be made to fully understand clinical conditions and provide the most beneficial treatments. ARTICLE REVIEW 7 References Gazzaniga, M., Ivry, R.B., & Mangun, G.R. (2013). Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (4th Ed.). Retrieved from Goitia, B., Manes, F., Torralva, T., Sigman, M., Duncan, J., Cetkovich, M., & Roca, M. (2017). The relationship between executive functions and fluid intelligence in euthymic Bipolar Disorder patients. Psychiatry Research, 346. . Kamal Bahary, M. H., Abd El-Rahman Ismail, A. I., Muhammad Sadek, I. S., & Ahmad ElGendy, M. A. (2019). Study of Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Bipolar Disorder Patients. Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 74(2), 436–450. Retrieved from ? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=133970052&site=eds-live&scope=site Keyes, K. M., Platt, J., Kaufman, A. S., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2017). Association of Fluid Intelligence and Psychiatric Disorders in a Population-Representative Sample of US Adolescents. JAMA psychiatry, 74(2), 179–188. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.3723 Ungvarsky, J. (2019). Fluid and crystallized intelligence. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from ? direct=true&db=ers&AN=133860747&site=eds-live&scope=site ...
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