psysci6_lectureppt_ch01_20180521.ppt - Michael S Gazzaniga Psychological Science SIXTH EDITION Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology \u00a92017 W W Norton

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Chapter 1The Science of Psychology©2017 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.Michael S. GazzanigaSIXTH EDITIONPsychological SciencePsychological Science
What Is PsychologicalScience?Learning ObjectivesDefine psychological science.Define critical thinking, and describe what it means to be a critical thinker.Identify the major biases in thinking, and explain why these biases result in faulty thinking.
1.1 Psychological Science Is the Study of Mind, Brain, and BehaviorPsychological science: the study, through research, of mind, brain, and behaviorMind refers to mental activity.Mental activity results from biological processes within the brain.Behavior describes the totality of observable human (or animal) actions.
1.2 Psychological Science TeachesCritical ThinkingCritical thinking: systematically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidenceA savvy consumer of scientific research is an amiable skeptic.
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1.2 Psychological Science TeachesCritical ThinkingPsychological reasoning refers to using psychological research to examine how people typically think, to understand when and why they are likely to draw erroneous conclusions.
1.3 Psychological Science Helps Us Understand Biased or Inaccurate ThinkingNoncritical thinking can lead to erroneous conclusions.ignoring evidence (confirmation bias)seeing relationships that do not existaccepting after-the-fact explanations taking mental shortcuts
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1.4 Why Are People Unaware of TheirWeaknesses?Failing to see our own inadequacies: Why are people unaware of their weaknesses?Fremdschämen:times when we experience embarrassment for other people in part because they do not realize that they should be embarrassed for themselvesPeople are often blissfully unaware of their weaknesses because they do not assess themselves objectively.
1.4 Why Are People Unaware of TheirWeaknesses?If people lack the skills to produce correct answers, they are also cursed with an inability to know when their answers, or anyone else’s, are right or wrong.In studies of college students, Dunning and Kruger found that people with the lowest grades rate their mastery of academic skills much higher than evidenced by their performance.
1.4 Why Are People Unaware of TheirWeaknesses?To make matters worse, people who are unaware of their weaknesses fail to make any efforts at self-improvements to overcome those weaknesses.Kruger and Dunning have shown that teaching people specific skills helps them to be more accurate in judging their performance.People might need help in identifying their weaknesses before they can fix those weaknesses.
1.4 Why Are People Unaware of TheirWeaknesses?

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