psysci6_lectureppt_ch03_20180521.ppt - Michael S Gazzaniga...

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Chapter 3Biology and Behavior©2017 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.Michael S. GazzanigaSIXTH EDITIONPsychological SciencePsychological Science
How Does the Nervous System Operate?Learning ObjectivesDistinguish between the two basic divisions of the nervous system.Distinguish between the functions of distinct types of neurons.Describe the structure of the neuron.Describe the electrical and chemical changes that occur when neurons communicate.Identify the major neurotransmitters and their primary functions.
How Does the Nervous System Operate?
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3.1 Neurons Are the Basic Units ofthe Nervous SystemThe nervous system is responsible for everything we think, feel, and do.Basic components:Neurons: the basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous systemThey operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural networks.
Functions of NeuronsNerve cells are powered by electrical impulses and communicate with other nerve cells through chemical signals.Three basic phases:Reception: Chemical signals are received from neighboring neurons.Integration: Incoming signals are assessed.Transmission: Signals are passed on to other receiving neurons.
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Functions of NeuronsSensory neurons: These neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain.Somatosensory nerves provide information from the skin and muscles.Motor neurons: These neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement.Interneurons: These neurons communicate within local or short-distance circuits.
Neuron StructureDendrite: branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neuronsCell body (soma):the site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integratedAxon: a long, narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is conducted from the cell body to the terminal buttons
Neuron StructureTerminal buttons: at the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapseSynapse: the gap between the axon of a “sending” neuron and the dendrites of a “receiving” neuron; the site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons
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3.2 Action Potentials Produce NeuralCommunicationAction potential (neural firing):the electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons
Resting Membrane PotentialResting membrane potential: the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not activePolarized: when a neuron has more negative ions inside it than outsidePolarization creates the electrical energy necessary to power the firing of the neuron.

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